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Linking the DRDP Measures to the Foundations

ATL-REG 1: Attention Maintenance

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

ATL-REG 2: Self-Comforting

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

ATL-REG 3: Imitation

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

ATL-REG 4: Curiosity and Initiative in Learning

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

ATL-REG 5: Self-Control of Feelings and Behavior

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Seek security and support from their primary teachers and caregivers. Take greater initiative in seeking the support of their teachers and caregivers.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children use simple behaviors to comfort themselves and begin to communicate the need for help to alleviate discomfort or distress. Children demonstrate a variety of responses to comfort themselves and actively avoid or ignore situations that cause discomfort. Children can also communicate needs and wants through the use of a few words and gestures. Children anticipate the need for comfort and try to prepare themselves for changes in routine. Children have many self-comforting behaviors to choose from, depending on the situation, and can communicate specific needs and wants.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children act on impulses. Children respond positively to choices and limits set by an adult to help control their behavior. Children may sometimes exercise voluntary control over actions and emotional expressions.

ATL-REG 6: Engagement and Persistence

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Enjoy learning and are confident in their abilities to make new discoveries although may not persist at solving difficult problems. Take greater initiative in making new discoveries, identifying new solutions, and persisting in trying to figure things out.

ATL-REG 7: Shared Use of Space and Materials

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Need adult guidance in managing their attention, feelings, and impulses and show some effort at self-control. Regulate their attention, thoughts, feelings, and impulses more consistently, although adult guidance is sometimes necessary.
48 months 60 months
Interact easily with peers in shared activities that occasionally become cooperative efforts. More actively and intentionally cooperate with each other.
48 months 60 months
Seek assistance in resolving peer conflict, especially when disagreements have escalated into physical aggression. Negotiate with each other, seeking adult assistance when needed, and increasingly use words to respond to conflict. Disagreements may be expressed with verbal taunting in addition to physical aggression.
48 months 60 months
Participate in group activities and are beginning to understand and cooperate with social expectations, group rules, and roles. Participate positively and cooperatively as group members.
48 months 60 months
Seek to cooperate with adult instructions but their capacities for self-control are limited, especially when they are frustrated or upset. Have growing capacities for self-control and are motivated to cooperate in order to receive adult approval and think approvingly of themselves.
48 months 60 months
Strive to cooperate with group expectations to maintain adult approval and get along with others. Self-control is inconsistent, however, especially when children are frustrated or upset. Exhibit responsible conduct more reliably as children develop self-esteem (and adult approval) from being responsible group members. May also manage others' behavior to ensure that others also fit in with group expectations.
48 months 60 months
Respond to the feelings and needs of others with simple forms of assistance, sharing, and turn-taking. Understand the importance of rules that protect fairness and maintain order. Pay attention to others' feelings, more likely to provide assistance, and try to coordinate personal desires with those of other children in mutually satisfactory ways. Actively support rules that protect fairness to others.
48 months 60 months
Can use simple bargaining strategies and seek adult assistance when in conflict with other children or adults, although frustration, distress, or aggression may also occurs. More capable of negotiating, compromising, and finding cooperative means of resolving conflict with peers or adults, although verbal aggression may also result.

SED 1: Identity of Self in Relation to Others

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Describe their physical characteristics, behavior, and abilities positively. Compare their characteristics with those of others and display growing awareness of their psychological characteristics, such as thoughts and feelings.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children show clear awareness of being a separate person and of being connected with other people. Children identify others as both distinct from and connected to themselves. Children demonstrate awareness of their characteristics and express themselves as distinct persons with thoughts and feelings. Children also demonstrate expectations of others' behaviors, responses, and characteristics on the basis of previous experiences with them. Children identify their feelings, needs, and interest, and identify themselves and others as members of one or more groups by referring to categories.

SED 2: Social and Emotional Understanding

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Respond to the feelings and needs of others with simple forms of assistance, sharing, and turn-taking. Understand the importance of rules that protect fairness and maintain order. Pay attention to others' feelings, more likely to provide assistance, and try to coordinate personal desires with those of other children in mutually satisfactory ways. Actively support rules that protect fairness to others.
48 months 60 months
Seek to understand people's feelings and behavior, notice diversity in human characteristics, and are interested in how people are similar and different. Begin to comprehend the mental and psychological reasons people act as they do and how they contribute to differences between people.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate concern for the needs of others and people in distress. Respond to another's distress and needs with sympathetic caring and are more likely to assist.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children express a variety of primary emotions such as contentment, distress, joy, sadness, interest, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear. Children express emotions in a clear and intentional way, and begin to express some complex emotions, such as pride. Children express complex, self-conscious emotions such as pride, embarrassment, shame, and guilt. Children demonstrate awareness of their feelings by using words to describe feelings to others or acting them out in pretend play.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children demonstrate awareness of others' feelings by reacting to their emotional expressions. Children change their behavior in response to the feelings of others even though their actions may not always make the other person feel better. Children show an increased understanding of the reason for another's distress and may become distressed by the other's distress. Children understand that other people have feelings that are different from their own and can sometimes respond to another's distress in a way that might make that person feel better.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children have learned what to expect from familiar people, understand what to do to get another's attention, engage in back-and-forth interactions with others, and imitate the simple actions or facial expressions of others. Children know how to get the infant care teacher to respond in a specific way through gestures, vocalizations, and shared attentions; use another's emotional expressions to guide their own responses to unfamiliar events; and learn more complex behavior through imitation. Children also engage in more complex social interactions and have developed expectations for a greater number of familiar people. Children can talk about their own wants and feelings and those of other people, describe familiar routines, participate in coordinated episodes of pretend play with peers, and interact with adults in more complex ways.

SED 3: Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Interact comfortably with many peers and adults; actively contribute to creating and maintaining relationships with a few significant adults and peers. Understand the mutual responsibilities of relationships; take initiative in developing relationships that are mutual, cooperative, and exclusive.
48 months 60 months
Identify as members of a group, participate willingly in group activities, and begin to understand and accept responsibility as group members, although assistance is required in coordinating personal interests with those of others. Become involved as responsible participants in group activities, with growing understanding of the importance of considering others' opinions, group decision making, and respect for majority rules and the views of group members who disagree with the majority.
48 months 60 months
Strive to cooperate with group expectations to maintain adult approval and get along with ithers. Self-control is inconsistent, however, especially when children are frustrated or upset. Exhibit responsible conduct more reliably as children develop self-esteem (and adult approval) from being responsible group members. May also manage others' behavior to ensure that others also fit in with group expectations.
48 months 60 months
Respond to the feelings and needs of others with simple forms of assistance, sharing, and turn-taking. Understand the importance of rules that protect fairness and maintain order. Pay attention to others' feelings, more likely to provide assistance, and try to coordinate personal desires with those of other children in mutually satisfactory ways. Actively support rules that protect fairness to others.
48 months 60 months
Seek to understand people's feelings and behavior, notice diversity in human characteristics, and are interested in how people are similar and different. Begin to comprehend the mental and psychological reasons people act as they do and how they contribute to differences between people.
48 months 60 months
Interact with familiar adults comfortably and competently, especially in familiar settings. Participate in longer and more reciprocal interactions with familiar adults and take greater initiative on social interactions.
48 months 60 months
Participating in group activities and are beginning to understand and cooperate with social expectations, group rules, and roles. Participate positively and cooperatively as group members.
48 months 60 months
Seek to cooperate with adult instructions but their capacities for self-control are limited, especially when they are frustrated or upset. Have growing capacities for self-control and are motivated to cooperate in order to receive adult approval and think approvingly of themselves.
48 months 60 months
Contribute to maintaining positive relationships with their primary family attachment figures. Contribute to positive mutual cooperation with their primary family attachment figures.
48 months 60 months
Contribute to maintaining positive relationships with primary teachers and caregivers. Contribute to positive mutual cooperation with primary teachers and caregivers.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children purposefully engage in reciprocal interactions and try to influence the behavior of others. Children may be both interest in and cautious of unfamiliar adults. Children may participate in routines and games that involve complex back-and-forth interaction and may follow the gaze of the infant care teacher to an object or person. Children may also check with a familiar infant care teacher when uncertain about something or someone. Children interact with adults to solve problems or communicate about experiences or ideas.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children seek a special relationship with one (or a few) familiar adult(s) by initiating interactions and seeking proximity, especially when distressed. Children feel secure exploring the environment in the presence of important adults with whom they have developed a relationship over an extended period of time. When distressed, children seem to be physically close to these adults. When exploring the environment, from time-to-time children reconnect, in a variety of ways, with the adult(s) with whom they have developed a special relationship: shared feelings; or conversations about feelings, shared activities, or plans. When distressed, children may still seek to be physically close to these adults.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children have learned what to expect from familiar people, understand what to do to get another's attention, engage in back-and-forth interactions with others, and imitate the simple actions or facial expressions. Children know how to get the infant care teacher to respond in a specific way through gestures, vocalizations, and shared attention; use another's emotional expressions to guide their own responses to unfamiliar events; and learn more complex behavior through imitation. Children also engage in more complex social interactions and have developed expectations for a greater number of familiar people. Children can talk about their own wants and feelings and those of other people, describe familiar routines, participate in coordinated episodes of pretend play with peers, and interact with adults in more complex ways.

SED 4: Relationships and Social Interactions with Peers

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Interact comfortably with many peers and adults; actively contribute to creating and maintaining relationships with a few significant adults and peers. Understand the mutual responsibilities of relationships; take initiative in developing relationships that are mutual, cooperative, and exclusive.
48 months 60 months
Identify as members of a group, participate willingly in group activities, and begin to understand and accept responsibility as group members, although assistance is required in coordinating personal interests with those of others. Become involved as responsible participants in group activities, with growing understanding of the importance of considering others' opinions, group decision making, and respect for majority rules and the views of group members who disagree with the majority.
48 months 60 months
Strive to cooperate with group expectations to maintain adult approval and get along with others. Self-control is inconsistent, however, especially when children are frustrated or upset. Exhibit responsible conduct more reliably as children develop self-esteem (and adult approval) from being responsible group members. May also manage others' behavior to ensure that others also fit in with group expectations.
48 months 60 months
Respond to the feelings and needs of others with simple forms of assistance, sharing, and turn-taking. Understand the importance of rules that protect fairness and maintain order. Pay attention to others' feelings, more likely to provide assistance, and try to coordinate personal desires with those of other children in mutually satisfactory ways. Actively support rules that protect fairness to others.
48 months 60 months
Can use simple bargaining strategies and seek adult assistance when in conflict with other children or adults, although frustration, distress, or aggression also occurs. More capable of negotiating, compromising, and finding cooperative means of resolving conflict with peers or adults, although verbal aggression may also result.
48 months 60 months
Seek to understand people's feelings and how behavior, notice diversity in human characteristics, and are interested in how people are similar and different. Begin to comprehend the mental and psychological reasons people act as they do and how they contribute to differences between people.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate concern for the needs of others and people in distress. Respond to another's distress and needs with sympathetic caring and more likely to assist.
48 months 60 months
Interact easily with peers in shared activities that occasionally become cooperative efforts. More actively and intentionally cooperate with each other.
48 months 60 months
Participate in simple sequences of pretend play. Create more complex sequences of pretend play to involve planning.
48 months 60 months
Seek assistance in resolving peer conflict, especially when disagreements have escalated into physical aggression. Negotiate with each other, seeking adult assistance when needed, and increasingly use words to respond to conflict. Disagreements may be expressed with verbal taunting in addition to physical aggression.
48 months 60 months
Participate in group activities and are beginning to understand and cooperate with social expectations, group rules, and roles. Participate positively and cooperatively as group members.
48 months 60 months
Seek to cooperate with adult instructions but their capacities for self-control are limited, especially when they are frustrated or upset. Have growing capacities for self-control and are motivated to cooperate in order to receive adult approval and think approvingly of themselves.
48 months 60 months
Choose to play with one or two special peers whom they identify as friends. Friendships are more reciprocal, exclusive, and enduring.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children show interest in familiar and unfamiliar peers. Children may stare at another child, explore another child's face and body, and respond to siblings and older peers. Children engage in simple back-and-forth interactions with peers for short periods of time. Children engage in simple cooperative play with peers.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children show interest in familiar and unfamiliar children. Children prefer to interact with one or two familiar children in the group and usually engage in the same kind of back-and-forth play. Children have developed friendships with a small number of children in the group and engage in more complex play with those friends than with other peers.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children have learned what to expect from familiar people, understand what to do to get another's attention, engage in back-and-forth interactions with others, and imitate the simple actions or facial expressions. Children know how to get the infant care teacher to respond in a specific way through gestures, vocalizations, and shared attention; use another's emotional expressions to guide their own responses to unfamiliar events; and learn more complex behavior through imitation. Children also engage in more complex social interactions and have developed expectations for a greater number of familiar people. Children can talk about their own wants and feelings and those of other people, describe familiar routines, participate in coordinated episodes of pretend play with peers, and interact with adults in more complex ways.

SED 5: Symbolic and Sociodramatic Play

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Interact easily with peers in shared activities that occasionally become cooperative efforts. More actively and intentionally cooperate with each other.
48 months 60 months
Participate in simple sequences of pretend play. Create more complex sequences of pretend play that involve planning, coordination of roles, and cooperation.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children become familiar with objects and actions through active exploration. Children also build knowledge of people, action, objects, and ideas through observation. Children use one object to represent another object and engage in one or two simple actions of pretend play. Children engage in make-believe play involving several sequenced steps, assigned roles, and an overall plan and sometimes pretend by imagining an object without needing the concrete object present.

LLD 1: Understanding of Language (Receptive)

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Understand and use accepted words for objects, actions, and attributes encountered frequently in both real and symbolic contexts. Understand and use an increasing variety and specificity of accepted words for objects, actions, and attributes encountered in both real and symbolic contexts.
48 months 60 months
Understand and use increasingly complex and longer sentences, including sentences that combine two phases or two to three concepts to communicate ideas. Understand and use increasingly complex and longer sentences, including sentences that combine two to three phrases or three to four concepts to communicate ideas.
48 months 60 months
Understand and typically use age-appropriate grammar, including accepted word forms, such as subject-verb agreement, progressive tense, regular past tense, regular plurals, pronouns, and possessives. Understand and typically use age-appropriate grammar, including accepted word forms, such as subject-verb agreement, progressive tense, regular and irregular past tense, regular and irregular plurals, pronouns, and possessives.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children show understanding of a small number of familiar words and react to the infant care teacher's overall tone of voice. Children show understanding of one-step requests that have to do with the current situations. Children demonstrate understanding of the meaning of others' comments, questions, requests, or stories.

LLD 2: Responsiveness to Language

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children show understanding of a small number of familiar words and react to the infant care teacher's overall tone of voice. Children show understanding of one-step requests that have to do with the current situations. Children demonstrate understanding of the meaning of others' comments, questions, requests, or stories.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children participate in back-and-forth communicate and games. Children use conventional gestures and words to communicate meaning in short back-and-forth interactions and use the basic rules of conversational turn-taking when communicating. Children engage in back-and-forth conversations that contain a number of turns, with each turn building upon what was said in the previous turn.

LLD 3: Communication and Use of Language (Expressive)

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Understand and use accepted words for objects, actions, and attributes encountered frequently in both real and symbolic contexts. Understand and use an increasing variety and specificity of accepted words for objects, actions, and attributes encountered in both real and symbolic contexts.
48 months 60 months
Understand and use increasingly complex and longer sentences, including sentences that combine two phases or two to three concepts to communicate ideas. Understand and use increasingly complex and longer sentences, including sentences that combine two to three phrases or three to four concepts to communicate ideas.
48 months 60 months
Understand and typically use age-appropriate grammar, including accepted word forms, such as subject-verb agreement, progressive tense, regular past tense, regular plurals, pronouns, and possessives. Understand and typically use age-appropriate grammar, including accepted word forms, such as subject-verb agreement, progressive tense, regular and irregular past tense, regular and irregular plurals, pronouns, and possessives.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children experiment with sounds, practice making sounds, and use sounds or gestures to communicate need, wants, or interests. Children say a few words and use conventional gestures to tell others about their needs, wants, and interests. Children communicate in a way that is understandable to most adults who speak the same language they do. Children combine words into simple sentences and demonstrate the ability to follow some grammatical rules of the home language.

LLD 4: Reciprocal Communication and Conversation

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Use language to communicate with others in familiar social situations for a variety of basic purposes, including describing, requesting, commenting, acknowledging, greeting, and rejecting. Use language to communicate with others in both familiar and unfamiliar social situations for a variety of basic and advanced purposes, including reasoning, predicting, problem solving, and seeking new information.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

LLD 5: Interest in Literacy

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Demonstrate enjoyment of literacy and literacy-related activities. Demonstrate, with increasing independence, enjoyment of literacy and literacy-related activities.
48 months 60 months
Engage in routines associated with literacy activities. Engage in more complex routines associated with literacy activities.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children explore books and show interest in adult-initiated literacy activities, such as looking at photos and exploring books together with an adult. Children listen to the adult and participate while being read to by pointing, turning pages, or making one- or two – word comments. Children actively notice print in the environment. Children show appreciation for books and initiate literacy activities: listening, asking questions, or making comments while being read to; looking at books on their own; or making scribble marks on paper and pretending to read what is written.

LLD 6: Comprehension of Age-Appropriate Text

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Demonstrate knowledge of main characters or events in a familiar story (e.g., who, what, where) through answering questions (e.g., recall and simple inferencing), retelling, reenacting, or creating artwork. Demonstrate knowledge of details in a familiar story, including characters, events, and ordering of events through answering questions (particularly summarizing, predicting, and inferencing), retelling, reenacting, or creating artwork.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate knowledge from informational text through labeling, describing, playing, or creating artwork. Use information from informational text in a variety of ways, including describing, relating, categorizing, or comparing and contrasting.

LLD 7: Concepts About Print

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Begin to display appropriate book-handling behaviors and begin to recognize print conventions. Display appropriate book-handling behaviors and knowledge of print conventions.
48 months 60 months
Recognize print as something that can be read. Understand that print is something that is read and has specific meaning.

LLD 8: Phonological Awareness

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Orally blend and delete words and syllables without the support of pictures or objects.
48 months 60 months
Orally blend the onsets, times, and phonemes of words and orally delete the onsets of words, with the support of pictures or objects.

LLD 9: Letter and Word Knowledge

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Recognize the first letter of own name. Recognize own name or other common words in print.
48 months 60 months
Match some letter names to their printed form. Match more than half of uppercase letter names and more than half of lowercase letter names to their printed form.
48 months 60 months
Begin to recognize that letters have sounds.

LLD 10: Emergent Writing

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Write using scribbles that are different from pictures. Write letters or letter-like shapes to represent words or ideas.
48 months 60 months
Write marks to represent own name. Write first name nearly correctly.

COG 1: Spatial Relationships

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Identify positions of objects and people in space, such as in/on/under, up/down, and inside/outside.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children move their bodies, explore the size and shape of objects, and observe people and objects as they move through space. Children use trial and error to discover how things move and fit in space. Children can predict how things will fit and move in space without having to try out every possible solution and show understanding of words used to describe size and locations in space.

COG 2: Classification

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Sort and classify objects by one attribute into two or more groups, with increasing accuracy. Sort and classify objects by one or more attributes, into two or more groups, with increasing accuracy (e.g., may sort first by one attribute and then by another attribute).
48 months 60 months
Begin to apply simple mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment. Identify and apply a variety of mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people, places, and objects, and explore the differences between them. Children show awareness when objects are in some way connected to each other, match two objects that are the same, and separate a pile of objects into two groups based on one attribute. Children group objects into multiple piles based on one attribute at a time, put things that are similar but not identical into one group, and may label each grouping, even though sometimes these labels are overgeneralized.

COG 3: Number Sense of Quantity

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Recite numbers in order to ten with increasing accuracy. Recite numbers in order to twenty with increasing accuracy.
48 months 60 months
Begin to recognize and name a few written numerals. Recognize and know the name of some written numerals.
48 months 60 months
Identify, without counting, the number of objects in a collection of up to three objects. Identify, without counting in a collection of up to four objects (i.e., subitize).
48 months 60 months
Count up to five objects, using one-to-one correspondence (one object for each number word) with increasing accuracy. Count up to ten objects, using one-to-one correspondence (one object for each number word) with increasing accuracy.
48 months 60 months
The number name of the last object counted to answer the question, “How many … ?” Understand, when counting, that the number name of the last object counted represents the total number of objects in the group (i.e., cardinality).
48 months 60 months
Compare visually (with or without counting) two groups of objects that are obviously equal or nonequal and communicate, “more” or “same”. Compare, by counting or matching, two groups of up to five objects and communicate, “more”, “same as”, or “fewer” (or “less”).

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children usually focus on one object or person at a time, yet they may at times hold two objects, one in each hand. Children demonstrate understanding that there are different amounts of things. Children show some understanding that numbers represent how many and demonstrate understanding of words that identify how much.

COG 4: Number Sense of Math Operations

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Compare visually (with or without counting) two groups of objects that are obviously equal or nonequal and communicate, “more” or “same”. Compare, by counting or matching, two groups of up to five objects and communicate, “more”, “same as”, or “fewer” (or “less”).
48 months 60 months
Understand that adding to (or taking away) one or more objects from a group will increase (or decrease) the number of objects in the group. Understand that adding one or taking away one changes the number in a small group of objects by exactly one.
48 months 60 months
Understand that putting two groups of objects together will make a bigger group. Understand that putting two groups of objects together will make a bigger group and that a group of objects can be taken apart into smaller groups.
48 months 60 months
Solve simple addition and subtraction problems nonverbally (and often verbally) with a very small number of objects (sums up to 4 or 5). Solve simple addition and subtraction problems with a small number of objects (sums up to 10), usually by counting.
48 months 60 months
Begin to apply simple mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment. Identify and apply a variety of mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment.

COG 5: Measurement

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Demonstrate awareness that objects can be compared by length, weight, or capacity, by noting gross differences, using words such as bigger, longer, heavier, or taller, or by placing objects side by side to compare length. Compare two objects by length, weight, or capacity directly (e.g., putting objects side by side) or indirectly (e.g., using a third object).
48 months 60 months
Order three objects by size. Order four or more objects by size.
48 months 60 months
Begin to apply simple mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment. Identify and apply a variety of mathematical strategies to solve problems in their environment.

COG 6: Patterning

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Begin to identify or recognize a simple repeating pattern. Recognize and duplicate simple repeating patterns.
48 months 60 months
Attempt to create a simple repeating pattern or participate in making one. Begin to extend and create simple repeating patterns.

COG 7: Shapes

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Identify simple two-dimensional shapes, such as a circle and square. Identify, describe, and construct a variety of different shapes, including variations of a circle, triangle, rectangle, square, and other shapes.
48 months 60 months
Use individual shapes to represent different elements of a picture or design. Combine different shapes to create a picture or design.

COG 8: Cause and Effect

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence. Demonstrate an increased ability to make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate awareness that objects and materials can change; explore and describe changes in objects and materials (rearrangement of parts; changes in color, shape, texture, temperature). Demonstrate an increased awareness that objects and materials can change in various ways. Explore and describe in greater detail changes in objects and materials (rearrangement of parts; changes in color, shape, texture, form, and temperature).
48 months 60 months
Observe and describe the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and explore the effect of own actions (e.g., pushing, pulling, rolling, dropping) on making objects move. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe and describe in greater detail the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and to explore the effect of own actions on the motion of objects, including changes in speed and direction.
48 months 60 months
Begin to notice the effects of weather and seasonal changes on their own lives and on plants and animals. Demonstrate an increased ability to notice and describe the effects of weather and seasonal changes on their own lives and on plants and animals.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children perform simple actions to make things happen, notice the relationships between events, and notice the effects of others on the immediate environment. Children combine simple actions to cause things to happen or change the way they interact with objects and people in order to see how it changes the outcome. Children demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect by making predictions about what could happen and reflect upon what caused something to happen.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children use simple actions to try to solve problems involving objects, their bodies, or other people. Children use a number of ways to solve problems: physically trying out possible solutions before finding one that works; using objects as tools; watching someone else solve the problem and then applying the same solution; or gesturing or vocalizing to someone else for help. Children solve some problems without having to physically try out every possible solution and may ask for help when needed.

COG 9: Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Demonstrate curiosity and raise simple questions about objects and events in their environment. Demonstrate curiosity and an increased ability to raise questions about objects and events in their environment.
48 months 60 months
Observe objects and events in the environment and describe them. Observe objects and events in the environment and describe them in greater detail.
48 months 60 months
Begin to identify and use, with adult support, some observation and measurement tools. Identify and use a greater variety of observation and measurement tools. May spontaneously use an appropriate tool, though may still need adult support.
48 months 60 months
Compare and contrast objects and events and begin to describe similarities and differences. Compare and contrast objects and events and describe similarities and differences in greater detail.
48 months 60 months
Make predictions and check them, with adult support, through concrete experiences. Demonstrate an increased ability to make predictions and check hem (e.g., may make more complex predictions, offer ways to test predictions, and discuss why predictions were correct or incorrect).
48 months 60 months
Make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence. Demonstrate an increased ability to make inferences and form generalizations based on evidence.
48 months 60 months
Observe, investigate, and identify the characteristics and physical properties of objects and of solid and nonsolid materials (size, weight, shape, color, texture, and sound). Demonstrate increased ability to observe, investigate, and describe in greater detail the characteristics and physical properties of objects and of solid and nonsolid materials (size, weight, shape, color, texture, and sound).
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate awareness that objects and materials can change; explore and describe changes in objects and materials (rearrangement of parts; change in color, shape, texture, temperature). Demonstrate an increased awareness that objects and materials can change in various ways. Explore and describe in greater detail changes in objects and materials (rearrangement of parts; change in color, shape, texture, form, and temperature).
48 months 60 months
Observe and describe the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and explore the effect of own actions (e.g., pushing, pulling, rolling, dropping) on making objects move. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe and describe in greater detail the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and to explore the effect of own actions on the motion of objects, including changes in speed and direction.
48 months 60 months
Investigate characteristics (size, weight, shape, color, texture) of earth materials such as sand, rocks, soil, water, and air. Demonstrate increased ability to investigate and compare characteristics (size, weight, shape, color, texture) of earth materials such as sand, rocks, soil, water, and air.
48 months 60 months
Observe and describe natural objects in the sky (sun, moon, stars, clouds) and how they appear to move and change. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe and describe natural objects in the sky and to notice patterns of movement and apparent changes in the sun and the moon.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children use simple actions to try to solve problems involving objects, their bodies, or other people. Children use a number of ways to solve problems: physically trying out possible solutions before finding one that works; using objects as tools; watching someone else solve the problem and then applying the same solution; or gesturing or vocalizing to someone else for help. Children solve some problems without having to physically try out every possible solution and may ask for help when needed.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children perform simple actions to make things happen, notice the relationships between events, and notice the effects of others on the immediate environment. Children combine simple actions to cause things to happen or change the way they interact with objects and people in order to see how it changes the outcome. Children demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect by making predictions about what could happen and reflect upon what caused something to happen.

COG 10: Documentation and Communication of Inquiry

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Observe objects and events in the environment and describe them. Observe objects and events in the environment and describe them in greater detail.
48 months 60 months
Compare and contrast objects and events and begin to describe similarities and differences. Compare and contrast objects and events and describe similarities and differences in greater detail.
48 months 60 months
Record observations or findings in various ways, with adult assistance, including pictures, words (dictated to adults), charts, journals, models, and photos. Record information more regularly and in greater detail in various ways, with adult assistance, including pictures, words (dictated to adults), charts, journals, models, photos, or by tallying and graphing information.
48 months 60 months
Share findings and explanations, which may be correct or incorrect, with or without adult prompting. Share findings and explanations, which may be correct or incorrect, more spontaneously and with greater detail.
48 months 60 months
Observe, investigate, and identify the characteristics and physical properties of objects and of solid and nonsolid materials (size, weight, shape, color, texture, and sound). Demonstrate increased ability to observe, investigate, and describe in greater detail the characteristics and physical properties of objects and of solid and nonsolid materials and compare characteristics (size, weight, shape, color, texture, and sound).
48 months 60 months
Observe and describe the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and explore the effect of own actions (e.g., pushing, pulling, rolling, dropping) on making objects move. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe and describe in greater detail the motion of objects (in terms of speed, direction, the ways things move), and to explore the effect of own actions on the motion of objects, including changes in speed and direction.

COG 11: Knowledge of the Natural World

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Identify characteristics of a variety of animals and plants, including appearance (inside and outside) and behavior, and begin to categorize them. Identify characteristics of a greater variety of animals and plants and demonstrate an increased ability to categorize them.
48 months 60 months
Begin to indicate knowledge of body parts and processes (e.g., eating, sleeping, breathing, walking) in humans and other animals. Indicate greater knowledge of body parts and processes (e.g., eating, sleeping, breathing, walking) in humans and other animals.
48 months 60 months
Identify the habitats of people and familiar animals and plants in the environment and begin to realize that living things have habitats in different environments. Recognize that living things have habitats in different environments suited to their unique needs.
48 months 60 months
Indicate knowledge of the difference between animate objects (animals, people) and inanimate objects to initiate movement and to have different insides than inanimate objects. Indicate knowledge of the difference between animate and inanimate objects, providing greater detail, and recognize that only animals and plants undergo biological processes such as growth, illness, healing, and dying.
48 months 60 months
Observe and explore growth and changes in humans, animals, and plants and demonstrate an understanding that living things change over time in size and in other capacities as they grow. Observe and explore growth in humans, animals, and plants and demonstrate an increased understanding that living things change as they grow and go through transformations related to the life cycle (for example, from caterpillar to butterfly).
48 months 60 months
Recognize that animals and plants require care and begin to associate feeding and watering with the growth of humans, animals, and plants. Develop a greater understanding of the basic needs of humans, animals, and plants (e.g., food, water, sunshine, shelter).
48 months 60 months
Investigate characteristics (size, weight, shape, color, texture) of earth materials such as sand, rocks, soil, water, and air. Demonstrate increased ability to investigate and compare characteristics (size, weight, shape, color, texture) of earth materials such as sand, rocks, soil, water, and air.
48 months 60 months
Observe and describe natural objects in the sky (sun, moon, stars, clouds) and how they appear to move and change. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe and describe natural objects in the sky and to notice patterns of movement and apparent changes in the sun and the moon.
48 months 60 months
Notice and describe changes in weather. Demonstrate an increased ability to observe, describe, and discuss changes in weather.
48 months 60 months
Begin to notice the effects of weather and seasonal changes on their own lives and on plants and animals. Demonstrate an increased ability to notice and describe the effects of weather and seasonal changes on their own lives and on plants and animals.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people, places, and objects, and explore the differences between them. Children show awareness when objects are in some way connected to each other, match two objects that are the same, and separate a pile of objects into two groups based on one attribute. Children group objects into multiple piles based on one attribute at a time, put things that are similar but not identical into one group, and may label each grouping, even though sometimes these labels are overgeneralized.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children perform simple actions to make things happen, notice the relationships between events, and notice the effects of others on the immediate environment. Children combine simple actions to cause things to happen or change the way they interact with objects and people in order to see how it changes the outcome. Children demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect by making predictions about what could happen and reflect upon what caused something to happen.

PD-HLTH 1: Perceptual-Motor Skills and Movement Concepts

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Maintain balance while holding still; sometimes may need assistance. Show increasing balance and control when holding still.
48 months 60 months
Maintain balance while in motion when moving from one position to another or when changing directions, though balance may not be completely stable. Show increasing balance control while moving in different directions and when transitioning from one movement or position to another.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate knowledge of the names of body parts. Demonstrate knowledge of an increasing number of body parts.
48 months 60 months
Use own body as reference point when locating or relating to other people or objects in space. Use own body, general space, and other people's space when locating or relating to other people or objects in space.
48 months 60 months
Move forward and backward or up and down easily. Can change directions quickly and accurately.
48 months 60 months
Can place an object on top of or under something with some accuracy. Can place an object or own body in from of, to the side, or behind something else with greater accuracy.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children use the senses to explore objects and people in the environment. Children use the information received from the senses to change the way they interact with the environment. Children can quickly and easily combine the information received from the senses to inform the way they interact with the environment.

PD-HLTH 2: Gross Locomotor Movement Skills

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Maintain balance while in motion when moving from one position to another or when changing directions, though balance may not be completely stable. Show increasing balance control while moving in different directions and when transitioning from one movement or position to another.
48 months 60 months
Walk with balance, not always stable, oppositional arm movements still developing, and relatively wise base of support (space between feet). Walk with balance, oppositional arm movements, and relatively narrow base of support (space between feet).
48 months 60 months
Run with short stride length and feet off the ground for a short period of time. May show inconsistent opposition of arms and legs. Run with longer stride length and each foot off the ground for a greater length of time. Opposition of arms and legs is more consistent.
48 months 60 months
Jump for height (up or down) and for distance with beginning competence. Jump for height (up or down) and for distance with increasing competence. Uses arm swing to aid forward jump.
48 months 60 months
Begin to demonstrate a variety of locomotor skills, such as galloping, sliding, hopping, and leaping. Demonstrate increasing ability and body coordination in a variety of locomotor skills, such as galloping, sliding, hopping, and leaping.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children demonstrate the ability to maintain their posture in a sitting position and to shift between sitting and other positions. Children move from one place to another by walking and running with basic control and coordination. Children move with ease, coordinating movements and performing a variety of movements.

PD-HLTH 3: Gross Locomotor Manipulative Skills

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Maintain balance while in motion when moving from one position to another or when changing directions, though balance may not be completely stable. Show increasing balance control while moving in different directions and when transitioning from one movement or position to another.
48 months 60 months
Begin to show gross motor manipulative skills by using arms, hands, and feet, such as rolling a ball underhand, tossing underhand, bouncing, catching, striking, throwing overhand, and kicking. Show gross motor manipulative skills by using arms, hands, and feet with increased coordination, such as rolling a ball underhand, tossing underhand, bouncing, catching, striking, throwing overhand, and kicking.
48 months 60 months
Use any two body parts together. Demonstrate more precision and efficiency during two-handed fine motor activities.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children demonstrate the ability to maintain their posture in a sitting position and to shift between sitting and other positions. Children move from one place to another by walking and running with basic control and coordination. Children move with ease, coordinating movements and performing a variety of movements.

PD-HLTH 4: Fine Motor Manipulative Skills

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Begin to show fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting, and dressing. Show increasing fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting, and dressing.
48 months 60 months
Distinguish movements that are up and down and to the side of the body (for example, understands “use that side, now the other side”). Begin to understand and distinguish between the sides of the body.
48 months 60 months
Use any two body parts together. Demonstrate more precision and efficiency during two-handed fine motor activities.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children easily reach for and grasp things and use eyes and hands to explore objects actively. Children are able to hold small objects in one hand and sometimes use both hands together to manipulate objects. Children coordinate the fine movements of the fingers, wrists, and hands to skillfully manipulate a wide range of objects and materials in intricate ways. Children often use one hand to stabilize an object while manipulating it.

PD-HLTH 5: Safety

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Follow safety rules with adult support and prompting. Follow safety rules more independently though may still need adult support and prompting.
48 months 60 months
Show beginning ability to follow transportation and pedestrian safety rules with adult instruction and supervision. Show increased ability to follow transportation and pedestrian safety rules with adult support and supervision.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children seek a special relationship with one (or a few) familiar adult(s) by initiating interactions and seeking proximity, especially when distressed. Children feel secure exploring the environment in the presence of important adults with whom they have developed a relationship over an extended period of time. When distresses, children seek to be physically close to these adults. When exploring the environment, from time to time children reconnect, in a variety of ways, with the adult(s) with whom they have developed a special relationship: through eye contact; facial expressions; shared feelings; or conversations about feelings, shared activities, or plans. When distresses, children may still seek to be physically close to these adults.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children act on impulses. Children respond positively to choices and limits set by an adult to help control their behavior. Children may sometimes exercise voluntary control over actions and emotional expressions.

PD-HLTH 6: Personal Care Routines – Hygiene

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Demonstrate knowledge of some steps in the handwashing routine. Demonstrate knowledge of more steps in the handwashing routine.
48 months 60 months
Practice health habits that prevent infectious diseases and infestations (such as lice) when appropriate, with adult support, instruction, and modeling. Begin to independently practice health habits that prevent infectious disease and infestations (such as lice) when appropriate, with less adult support, instruction, and modeling.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate knowledge of some steps of the routine for brushing teeth, with adult supervision and instruction. Demonstrate knowledge of more steps of the routine for brushing and when tooth brushing should be done, with less adult supervision.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children are responsive during the steps of personal care routines. Children show awareness of familiar personal care routines and participate in the steps of these routines. Children initiate and follow through with some personal care routines.

PD-HLTH 7: Personal Care Routines – Feeding

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children easily reach for and grasp things and use eyes and hands to explore objects actively.' Children are able to hold small objects in one hand and sometimes use both hands together to manipulate objects. Children coordinate the fine movements of the fingers, wrists, and hands to skillfully manipulate a wide range of objects and materials in intricate ways. Children often use one hand to stabilize an object while manipulating it.
8 months 18 months 36 months
Children are responsive during the steps of personal care routines. Children show awareness of familiar personal care routines and participate in the steps of these routines. Children initiate and follow through with some personal care routines.

PD-HLTH 8: Personal Care Routines – Dressing

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Begin to show fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting, and dressing. Show increasing fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting, and dressing.

California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations (I/T LDF)

8 months 18 months 36 months
Children are responsive during the steps of personal care routines. Children show awareness of familiar personal care routines and participate in the steps of these routines. Children initiate and follow through with some personal care routines.

PD-HLTH 9: Active Physical Play

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Move forward and backward or up and down easily. Can change directions quickly and accurately.
48 months 60 months
Initiate or engage in simple physical activities for a short to moderate period of time. Initiate more complex physical activities for a sustained period of time.
48 months 60 months
Engage in frequent burst of active play that involve the heart, the lungs, and the vascular system. Engage in sustained active play of increasing intensity that involved the heart, the lungs, and the vascular system.
48 months 60 months
Engage in active play activities that enhance leg and arm strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Engage in increasing amounts of active play activities that enhance leg and arm strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility.

PD-HLTH 10: Nutrition

California Preschool Learning Foundations (PLF)

48 months 60 months
Identify different kinds of foods. Identify a larger variety of foods and may know some of the related food groups.
48 months 60 months
Demonstrate a beginning understanding that eating a variety of food helps the body grow and be healthy and choose from a variety of foods at mealtimes. Demonstrate greater understanding that eating a variety of food helps the body grow and be healthy and choose from a greater variety of foods at mealtime.