DRDP (2015) Infant/Toddler View

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DRDP (2015)
A Developmental Continuum from Early Infancy to Kindergarten Entry

Infant/Toddler View
For use with infants and toddlers

© 2013-2016 by the California Department of Education
All Rights Reserved. Permission to reproduce only for instructional purposes.

The DRDP (2015) Calibration Version, was developed by the California Department of Education, Early Education and Support Division and Special Education Division, with assistance from: Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Center, University of California, Berkeley
Desired Results Access Project, Napa County Office of Education
Desired Results Developmental Profiles (2015) Instrument and Research Studies Project, WestEd’s Center for Child and Family Studies
Desired Results Training and Technical Assistance Project, WestEd’s Center for Child and Family Studies

For more information

Early Education and Support Division Programs may contact:
Desired Results Training and Technical Assistance
Website: www.desiredresults.us
Email: desiredresults@desiredresults.wested.org
Phone: (800) 770-6339

Special Education Division Programs may contact:
Desired Results Access Project
Website: www.draccess.org
Email: info@draccess.org
Phone: (800) 673-9220

Introduction to the DRDP (2015)

Welcome to the Desired Results Developmental Profile (2015) [DRDP (2015)]: A Developmental Continuum from Early Infancy to Kindergarten Entry. The DRDP (2015) is a formative assessment instrument developed by the California Department of Education for young children and their families used to inform instruction and program development.

Key Features of the DRDP (2015):

  • The DRDP (2015) is administered in natural settings through teacher observations, family observations, and examples of children’s work. Ongoing documentation of children’s knowledge and skills in everyday environments is a recommended practice for early childhood assessment.
  • The DRDP(2015) represents a full continuum of development from early infancy up to kindergarten entry. It has two views: the Infant/Toddler view for use with children in infant/toddler programs, and the Preschool View, for children in preschool programs.
  • The Preschool View has two forms: The Comprehensive View containing domains related to all areas of the Preschool Learning Foundations; and the Fundamental View, associated with essential domains of school readiness.
  • The DRDP (2015) is designed for use with all children from early infancy up to kindergarten entry, including children with Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) and Individualized Education Programs (IEPs).
  • The DRDP (2015) is aligned with all volumes of the California’s Infant/Toddler and Preschool Learning and Development Foundations, the Common Core Standards, and the Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework.
  • The DRDP (2015) takes into consideration the specific cultural and linguistic characteristics of California’s diverse population of young children, with specific consideration for children who are young dual language learners (see section below).
  • The DRDP (2015) was developed with the goal of ensuring that all children have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. To enable access to the assessment for diverse populations, the principles of Universal Design were followed.
  • The DRDP (2015) includes domains that meet the federal Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) child outcome reporting requirements for children with Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) or Individualized Education Programs (IEPs).

Information about Selected Key Features

Three of these key features: (1) consideration of young children who are dual language learners, (2) universal design and adaptations for children with IFSPs and IEPs, and (3) a detailed description of the developmental domains that make up the instrument, are described in more detail to help teachers and service providers better understand and rate the measures of the DRDP (2015).

Young Dual Language Learners and the DRDP (2015)

Dual language learners are children learning two or more languages at the same time, as well as those children learning a second language while continuing to develop their first (or home) language. A child’s experience with one or more languages is an asset to build on in the early childhood setting. It is critical to consider the child’s communication in all the languages that he or she is learning in order to have an accurate picture of a child’s knowledge and skills. Young children, including children with disabilities, can successfully learn two or more languages. Learning two or more languages has linguistic, social, cognitive, academic, and cultural benefits. The path to learning one language shares many similarities with the path to learning two or more languages. There are also differences that must be taken into consideration when assessing young children who are dual language learners. Children may have vocabulary for concepts in one language and vocabulary for other concepts in another language. So it is important to assess children in all of the languages he or she understands and uses. The DRDP (2015) addresses cultural and linguistic responsiveness in two primary ways:

  1. Teachers and service providers observe and document children’s behavior in both the home language and English to obtain a more accurate profile of the children’s knowledge and skills across developmental domains.
  2. Teachers and service providers rate children’s progress on two language development domains. The Language and Literacy Development (LLD) domain assesses all children’s progress in developing foundational language and literacy skills where ratings should be based on skills in all languages. The English-Language Development (ELD) domain assesses current knowledge and skills and progress in learning to communicate in English.

Universal Design and the DRDP (2015)

In the context of assessment, “Universal Design” refers to the development of assessments that are appropriate for all children to the greatest extent possible. Universal Design allows children the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a variety of ways. All young children are entitled access to, and meaningful participation in, age-appropriate, individually-appropriate and culturally-appropriate early childhood curricula and assessments. Teachers and service providers support children’s access and participation by identifying and providing learning opportunities, materials, and teaching strategies in flexible and individualized ways and through a variety of learning modalities. DRDP (2015) assessors apply universal design when they carefully consider the various ways young children can demonstrate knowledge or skills that reflect mastery of a developmental level.

The Eight Domains of the DRDP (2015)

The DRDP (2015) is made up of eight domains. The focus of each domain is on the acquisition of knowledge, skills, or behaviors that reflect each domain’s developmental constructs. The domains and sub-domains of the Fundamental View, essential to school readiness, are marked with an asterisk (*).

Approaches to Learning–Self-Regulation* (ATL-REG)

The ATL-REG domain assesses two related areas that are recognized as important for young children’s school readiness and success: Approaches to Learning and Self-Regulation. These areas have been combined into one domain because of the strong connections between them. The Approaches to Learning skills include attention maintenance, engagement and persistence, and curiosity and initiative. The Self-Regulation skills include self-comforting, self-control of feelings and behavior, imitation, and shared use of space and materials.

Social and Emotional Development* (SED)

The SED domain assesses children’s developing abilities to understand and interact with others and to form positive relationships with nurturing adults and their peers. The knowledge or skill areas in this domain include identity of self in relation to others, social and emotional understanding, relationships and social interactions with familiar adults, relationships and interactions with peers, and symbolic and sociodramatic play.

Language and Literacy Development* (LLD)

The LLD domain assesses the progress of all children in developing foundational language and literacy skills. These skills can be demonstrated in any language and in any mode of communication. Language and literacy skills in a child’s first language form the foundation for learning English. Therefore, dual language learners may demonstrate knowledge and skills in their home language, in English, or in both languages. LLD measures should be completed for all infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children, including those who are dual language learners.

English-Language Development* (ELD)

The ELD domain assesses the progress of children who are dual language learners in learning to communicate in English. The developmental progression described in the four ELD measures is related to the child’s experiences with English, not the child’s age. Keep in mind that children acquire English in different ways and at different rates. Factors that affect English acquisition include degree of exposure to English, level of support provided in their home/first language, and individual differences such as age of exposure to English or the structure of the child’s home/first language. The ELD measures should be completed only for preschool-age children whose home language is other than English.

Cognition, Including Math* and Science (COG)

The COG domain focuses on observation, exploration of people and objects, and investigation of objects and concepts. The knowledge or skill areas in this domain include spatial relationships, cause and effect, classification, number sense of quantity, number sense of math operations, measurement, patterning, shapes, inquiry through observation and investigation, documentation and communication of inquiry, and knowledge of the natural world.

Physical Development–Health* (PD-HLTH)

The PD-HLTH domain assesses motor development and the development of routines related to personal care, safety, and nutrition. The knowledge or skill areas in this domain include perceptual-motor skills and movement concepts, gross locomotor movement skills, gross motor manipulative skills, fine motor manipulative skills, active physical play, nutrition, safety, and personal care routines (hygiene, feeding, dressing).

History-Social Science (HSS)

The HSS domain focuses on learning about the expectations of social situations, how to participate within a group, and the relationship between people and the environment in which they live. The knowledge or skill areas in this domain include sense of time, sense of place, ecology, conflict negotiation, and responsible conduct.

Visual and Performing Arts (VPA)

The VPA domain focuses on awareness and engagement in four areas of artistic expression. The knowledge or skill areas in this domain include visual art, music, drama, and dance.

 

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About the Measures of the DRDP (2015)

The levels for each DRDP (2015) measure describe a developmental continuum, ranging from earlier developing to later developing competencies. The DRDP (2015) includes three types of continua:

  • Full Continuum Measures: describe development from early infancy to early kindergarten. These measures should be used with all infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children.
  • Earlier Development Measures: describe development that typically occurs from early infancy through early preschool ages and may be used with preschool-age children under specific conditions (identified as Conditional measures).
  • Later Development Measures: describe development that typically occurs from early preschool ages to early kindergarten. These measures should be used with all preschool-age children.

Conditional Measures for Preschool-Age Children

Some measures in the DRDP Preschool View are considered conditional measures that are only assessed when certain conditions are met. These measures should be used if they assist teachers and service providers in planning a child’s learning activities and supports, and documenting progress.

Conditional measures are used in three instances:

  • If a preschool child has not developmentally moved beyond the four earlier-development measures.
  • If a language other than English is spoken in the child’s home.
  • If the child is still working on the health measures (required for all children with IEPs).

Please note that the Earlier Development Measures, and the Physical Development and Health measures are required for children with IEPs.

Measure
Conditions Under Which to Assess

Earlier Development Measures

ATL-REG 1: Attention Maintenance
ATL-REG 2: Self-Comforting
ATL-REG 3: Imitation
COG 1: Spatial Relationships

  • Required for all infants and toddlers
  • Required for all preschool-age children with IEPs
  • Recommended for a preschool-age child whose development is not beyond the latest developmental level
  • If useful, select any or all of these four measures to assess

English-Language Development Measures

ELD 1: Comprehension of English (Receptive English)
ELD 2: Self-Expression in English (Expressive English)
ELD 3: Understanding and Response to English Literacy Activities
ELD 4: Symbol, Letter, and Print Knowledge in English

  • Used if a language other than English is spoken in the child’s home as indicated on the Information Page
  • Used only with preschool-age children
  • Not used with children who are deaf or hard of hearing and not learning spoken language
  • If rated, complete all of the measures in the ELD domain*

Physical Development and Health Measures

PD-HLTH 5: Safety
PD-HLTH 6: Personal Care Routines: Hygiene
PD-HLTH 7: Personal Care Routines: Feeding
PD-HLTH 8: Personal Care Routines: Dressing
PD-HLTH 10: Nutrition

  • Required for all infants and toddlers except PD-HLTH 9 and 10 which are for preschool children only
  • In the Comprehensive View, PD-HLTH 7 and 8 are conditional. In the Fundamental View, PD-HLTH 5-8 and PD-HLTH 10 are conditional.
  • Required for all preschool-age children with IEPs
  • Recommended for preschool children when this information would be useful for documenting progress or planning this child’s learning activities and supports

 

* Guidance for rating ELD measures for children who are dual language learners is provided in the section, “Young Dual Language Learners and the DRDP (2015)” on page Intro-2.

The Developmental Levels

The number of levels in a measure varies depending on the competencies that are appropriate for that measure’s developmental continuum. The levels are organized under four categories from early infancy up to kindergarten entry: Responding, Exploring, Building, and Integrating:

Responding (Earlier, Later)

Knowledge, skills, or behaviors that develop from basic responses (through using senses and through actions) to differentiated responses. Children generally engage in back-and-forth interactions with familiar adults and communicate through nonverbal messages.

Exploring (Earlier, Middle, Later)

Knowledge, skills, or behaviors that include active exploration including purposeful movement, purposeful exploration and manipulation of objects, purposeful communication, and the beginnings of cooperation with adults and peers. Children generally begin this period by using nonverbal means to communicate and, over time, grow in their ability to communicate verbally or use other conventional forms of language.

Building (Earlier, Middle, Later)

Knowledge, skills, or behaviors that demonstrate growing understanding of how people and objects relate to one another, how to investigate ideas, and how things work. Children use language to express thoughts and feelings, to learn specific early literacy and numeracy skills, and to increasingly participate in small group interactions and cooperative activities with others.

Integrating (Earlier)

Knowledge, skills, or behaviors that demonstrate the ability to connect and combine strategies in order to express complex thoughts and feelings, solve multi-step problems, and participate in a wide range of activities that involve social-emotional, self-regulatory, cognitive, linguistic, and physical skills. Children begin to engage in mutually supportive relationships and interactions.

Note that the developmental levels for the ELD domain differ from the above format as they represent the developmental progression for the acquisition of English as a second language during the early childhood years.

Definitions of Terms in the Navigation Maps

Developmental Domain: A crucial area of learning and development for children.

Measure: The developmental continuum along which a child’s observed behavior is assessed. Measures are the individual assessment items in the DRDP.

  • Full Continuum Measure: Describes development from early infancy to early kindergarten.
  • Early Development Measure: Describes development that typically occurs in infant/toddler and early preschool years.
  • Later Development Measure: Describes development that typically occurs in the preschool years and early kindergarten.

Definition: Specifies the aspects of development to be observed.

Developmental Level: A point along a developmental progression for a particular measure that ranges from earlier to later levels of development.

Descriptor: Defines the behaviors that would be observed for a child at that developmental level.

Example: Specific behaviors you might see that would demonstrate that a child has reached mastery of a particular developmental level. Note that the examples provided in the DRDP are not the only way a child can demonstrate mastery of a developmental level.

 

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The 3 Steps to Completing the DRDP (2015)

Step 1: Observation and Documentation

The DRDP (2015) focuses on the child’s behavior, knowledge, and skills. To capture a child’s behavior, the DRDP (2015) incorporates observation in natural settings.

While observing and collecting documentation, remember that words, phrases, and sentences can be communicated and understood in a variety of ways, including spoken in the child’s home language, signed, and through other communication modes (e.g., via a communication device). The teacher’s and service provider’s direct observations of a child are the primary method used to inform ratings and they should also use other sources of evidence to capture a more complete picture of a child’s knowledge and skills. Other sources of evidence include the following:

  • Observations by others – including teachers, family members/caregivers, and other service providers or caregivers, obtained through interview or conversations
  • Other documentation – including samples of children’s work, photographs, and video/audio recordings of children’s communication and behavior
Observations should occur over time, in typical settings:
  • In the child’s typical program or settings such as child care, classrooms, or home;
  • As the child interacts in familiar environments and routines with people he or she knows; and
  • As the child engages in typical activities and routines.

The Important Role of Families in the Documentation Process

Family members have repeated opportunities to observe their child’s activities and interactions over time and in a variety of situations. Their perspectives, combined with teachers’ and service providers’ observations, provide a more complete and reliable picture of a child’s typical behaviors. Inviting family members to share observations of their child’s development and behavior is a recommended practice for the DRDP (2015). The opportunity to observe a child’s level of mastery is greatest when the child is interacting with a familiar adult. Because of this, it is helpful to observe a child interacting with family members. This is especially true for children who are new to a program or at the earliest levels (Responding Earlier and Responding Later). These observations can inform assessment decisions for all domains. They are particularly important for the SED and LLD domains since social interaction and communication skills are learned through repeated interactions with familiar adults.

Observation and Documentation for Young Dual Language Learners

Young dual language learners may demonstrate knowledge and skills in their home language, in English, or in both languages. They may also code-switch, which is using more than one language within a conversation. Therefore, communication in all languages the child uses should be considered when collecting documentation and completing the measures in all domains. The adult who is conducting observations and collecting documentation should speak the child’s home language. If not, the adult must receive assistance from another adult, who does speak the child’s home language. This may be an assistant teacher, director, parent, or other adult who knows the child.

Dual Language Learners’ Use of Code Switching
  • Code switching is the use of multiple languages within a single conversation. It is a typical feature of learning two or more languages.
  • As early as three years of age, children code switch to playfully experiment with the two languages and to serve their own social and communication goals. For example, children may code switch to emphasize or elaborate a point.
  • Children might code switch when speaking with one person, or may use one language exclusively with one person and another language with another person.
  • When children mix their two languages they use the grammatical rules of each language. For example, “I want leche” [“I want milk”] is an example of inserting a Spanish noun into a grammatically correct English sentence.

Using Adaptations

Adaptations are changes in the environment or differences in observed behavior that allow children with IFSPs or IEPs to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in typical environments. Seven broad categories of adaptations have been identified for children with IFSPs and IEPs for the DRDP (2015).

  • The adaptations listed in the table below have been developed so that the assessment will more accurately measure a child’s abilities rather than the impact of a child’s disability (a more detailed description of the adaptations appears in Appendix D). Adaptations must be in place for the child during the normal course of the day, and they should also be in place during observations for the DRDP (2015). Everyone working with the child should be informed of any adaptations the child uses.
  • New adaptations must not be introduced solely for the purpose of conducting the DRDP (2015) assessment.
  • Consideration of adaptations should be made on a regular basis from early infancy and as the child develops and grows.

Seven Categories of Adaptations

Augmentative or Alternative Communication System
Methods of communication other than speech that allow a child who is unable to use spoken language to communicate with others.

Alternative Mode for Written Language
Methods of reading or writing used by a child who cannot see well enough to read or write or cannot hold and manipulate a writing utensil (e.g., pencil, pen) well enough to produce written symbols.

Visual Support
Adjustments to the environment that provide additional information to a child who has limited or reduced visual input.

Assistive Equipment or Device
Tools that make it possible or easier for a child to perform a task.

Functional Positioning
Strategic positioning and postural support that allow a child to have increased control of his body.

Sensory Support
Increasing or decreasing sensory input to facilitate a child’s attention and interaction in the environment.

Alternative Response Mode
Recognition that a child might demonstrate mastery of a skill in a unique way that differs from the child’s typically developing peers.

Step 2: Rating the Measures

Determining the Child’s Latest Level of Mastery

For each of the measures, determine the latest developmental level the child has mastered, and mark it appropriately.

What is Mastery?

A developmental level is mastered if the child demonstrates the knowledge, skills, and behaviors defined at that level:

  • Consistently over time
  • In different situations or settings

Important notes about mastery:

  • Children may demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills through a variety of communication modes, languages, and behaviors.
  • Many of the behaviors that you observe in determining a child’s mastery level may not appear on the list of examples, although they are consistent with the descriptor.
The Descriptors and Examples

Consider the descriptors first, and then the examples, to determine which developmental level is most consistent with your observations and other documentation of the child’s typical behavior. A child may demonstrate behaviors at more than one developmental level. Choose the level that most closely represents the knowledge, skills, or behaviors the child demonstrates most consistently.

Descriptors:

The descriptors define the knowledge, skills, or behaviors expected at each level along the developmental continuum of the measure (see Navigation Maps). Each descriptor is illustrated by several examples of behaviors that are consistent with that developmental level.

Most of the descriptors define discrete knowledge, skills, or behaviors. However, some include more than one behavior or skill, separated by “and,” “or,” or a semicolon (;) followed by “and.”

If the descriptor includes “or”:
The child only needs to demonstrate the behavior in one of the listed ways to demonstrate mastery for the developmental level. Either part of the descriptor may be observed to rate mastery at that level.

  • For example, the descriptor for Exploring Later in LLD 5: Interest in Literacy is:
    Looks at books on own briefly or Chooses to join reading, singing, or rhyming activities led by an adult

If the child EITHER looks at books on own briefly OR chooses to join reading, singing, or rhyming activities led by an adult, mastery can be rated at this level.

If a descriptor includes “and”:
All parts of the descriptor are required for mastery and need to be observed together.

  • For example, the descriptor for Building Earlier in ATL-REG 2: Self-Comforting is:
    Anticipates need for comfort and prepares self by asking questions, getting a special thing, or in other ways.

The child needs to demonstrate both anticipating a need for comfort and preparing self during the same observation.

If a descriptor includes a semi-colon (;) followed by “and”:
The child must demonstrate all the behaviors listed to rate the level as mastered, but not necessarily during the same observation within a DRDP rating period.

  • For example, the descriptor for Exploring Later in SED 3: Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults is: Initiates activities with familiar adults; and Seeks out assistance or support from familiar adults.

To be rated as mastered at this level, the child must BOTH initiate activities with familiar adults AND seek out assistance or support from familiar adults. The assessor does not have to observe both behaviors during the same observation within a DRDP rating period.

Please note that key terms and phrases in the descriptors that may be new or have specific meaning to the measures are defined in the Glossary at the end of the instrument.

Examples:

Keep in mind these important points about examples:

  • The examples are not a checklist of what the child must demonstrate to be rated at mastery of the knowledge, skills, or behaviors that reflect a developmental level.
  • An example is one of many possible ways a child might demonstrate mastery of a developmental level. Teachers and service providers will identify other examples as they conduct their observations.
  • Mastery is determined over time and across situations or settings.
  • A child may not demonstrate any of the specific examples provided for a developmental level, but may demonstrate mastery in other ways that are consistent with the intent of the descriptor.
  • Children demonstrate mastery in diverse and sometimes unique ways.
  • Examples have not been written to include all areas of disability. Universal design is intended to support the inclusion of children with disabilities on the DRDP (2015). However, it is important to review the adaptations as well as understand the construct being measured when assessing children with disabilities.

Additional Rating Options

Emerging to the Next Developmental Level:

If your observations indicate that the child has demonstrated mastery for a developmental level and is also beginning to demonstrate knowledge, skills, or behaviors described for the next level (although not yet consistently across situations or settings), the child may be emerging to the next level.

To indicate emerging:
  • First, mark the developmental level the child has mastered.
  • Then, mark “emerging” if the child also demonstrates behaviors described for the next developmental level.
Notes about Emerging:
  • You may mark emerging when rating full-continuum measures with infants and toddlers if the child has mastered the last level that can be rated and the child demonstrates some behaviors in the level that follows.
  • Do not mark emerging if the child has mastered the latest level on a measure.
  • Marking that the child is emerging to the next level does not affect the rating of mastery for the measure.
Child is Not Yet at the Earliest Developmental Level on a Later Development Measure:

If, after careful consideration, you determine that a preschool-age child is not yet demonstrating mastery of the earliest level of a later development measure, mark “Child is not yet at the earliest developmental level on this measure.”

Unable to Rate due to extended absence:
  • This is used only when the child is absent from the program for such an extended period of time during the four to six weeks prior to submitting your DRDP data that you could not gather information to rate the measures.
  • The following are NOT valid reasons to indicate Unable to Rate:
  • Not having enough time or enough information
  • The nature of a child’s disability or the severity of a child’s disability

The Responding Earlier level is designed to be inclusive of all children. Mark this earliest level unless the child demonstrates skills at a later level. Do not use Unable to Rate because you feel a child does not demonstrate the skills for the earliest level.

Rating Conditional Measures

If you are using the conditional measures for a preschool-age child, mark them on the Rating Record according to the following guidance:

Measure
How to Mark the DRDP

Earlier Development Measures

ATL-REG 1: Attention Maintenance
ATL-REG 2: Self-Comforting
ATL-REG 3: Imitation
COG 1: Spatial Relationships

  • These measures are required for all preschool-age children with IEPs

  • If the measure is rated, determine the child’s latest level of mastery and mark accordingly

  • If the measure is not rated, mark the box, “Measure not rated: this child’s development is beyond the latest developmental level”

English-Language Development Measures

ELD 1: Comprehension of English (Receptive English)
ELD 2: Self-Expression in English (Expressive English)
ELD 3: Understanding and Response to English Literacy Activities
ELD 4: Symbol, Letter, and Print Knowledge in English

  • If these measures are rated, determine the child’s latest level of mastery and mark accordingly

  • Check the box on the Information Page about the child’s home language

  • Not required for children who are deaf or hard of hearing who are not learning a spoken language

  • If these measures are not rated, mark the box, “Measure not rated: English is the only language spoken in this child’s home.”

Physical Development and Health Measures

PD-HLTH 5: Safety
PD-HLTH 6: Personal Care Routines: Hygiene
PD-HLTH 7: Personal Care Routines: Feeding
PD-HLTH 8: Personal Care Routines: Dressing
PD-HLTH 10: Nutrition

  • These measures are required for preschool-age children with IEPs

  • In the Comprehensive View, PD-HLTH 7 and 8 are conditional. In the Fundamental View, PD-HLTH 5-8 and PD-HLTH 10 are conditional.

  • If these measures are rated, determine the level of mastery and mark accordingly

  • If these measures are not rated, check the box, “I did not rate this measure because it is not used for documenting progress or planning this child’s learning activities and supports”

Step 3: Finalize the Assessment

To finalize, simply review the assessment to make sure that you have entered a rating for all of the measures and that the Information Page is complete and up-to-date:

  • For EESD programs: enter your ratings into DRDPtech,
  • For SED programs: enter your ratings into your MIS system for your SELPA’s CASEMIS submission. Check with your administrator for when and to whom your Rating Records are due.

 

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DRDP (2015) – A Developmental Continuum from Early Infancy to Kindergarten Entry

Special Education Information Page

For Use with Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs

1. Child’s first name (Legal) __________________________

2. Child’s last name (Legal) __________________________

3. Date DRDP (2015) was completed (e.g., 09/07/2015) _______ / _______ / _______

4. Assessment period (e.g., Fall 2015) __________________________

Child Information

5. Student ID (Issued by distric for reporting to CASEMIS) __________________________

6. Statewide Student Identifier (10-digit SSID) __________________________

7. Gender □ Male □ Female

8. Birth date (e.g., 03/05/2012) ______ / ______ / ________

9. Special education enrollment. Check one.
   □ Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)   □ Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Child’s Language Information

10. Child’s home language(s):
   □ English   □ Spanish
   □ Vietnamese   □ Cantonese
   □ Hmong   □ Tagalog/Pilipino
   □ Other (specify) ____________________

11. Language(s) used with this child:
   □ English   □ Spanish
   □ Vietnamese   □ Cantonese
   □ Hmong   □ Tagalog/Pilipino
   □ Other (specify) _____________________

12. Is a language other than English spoken in the child’s home? □ Yes □ No
   If yes, complete the ELD measures for a preschool-age child.
   If the child is Deaf or Hard of Hearing and not learning a spoken language, mark “No” and do not complete the ELD measures.

Child’s Ethnicity

13a. Is this child Hispanic or Latino? Check one.
 □ Yes, Hispanic or Latino □ No, not Hispanic or Latino
 □ Intentionally left blank

13b. What is the race of this child? Check up to three.
   □ Asian Indian   □ Hmong   □ Samoan
   □ Black or African-American   □ Japanese   □ Tahitian
   □ Cambodian   □ Korean   □ Vietnamese
   □ Chinese   □ Laotian    □ White
   □ Filipino   □ Native American   □ Intentionally left blank
   □ Guamanian   □ Other Asian
   □ Hawaiian   □ Other Pacific Islander

Special Education Information

14. Special education eligibility. Check one.
   □ Autism   □ Intellectual Disability   □ Specific Learning Disability
   □ Deaf-Blindness   □ Hard of Hearing
   □ Deafness   □ Multiple Disability   □ Speech or Language Impairment
   □ Emotional Disturbance   □ Orthopedic Impairment
   □ Established Medical Disability   □ Other Health Impairment   □ Traumatic Brain Injury
   □ Visual Impairment

15. Adaptations used in the assessment. Check all that apply.
   □ Augmentative or alternative communication system   □ Functional positioning
   □ Alternative mode for written language   □ Sensory support
   □ Visual support   □ Alternative response mode
   □ Assistive equipment or device   □ None

Program Information

16. SELPA __________________________

17. District of service __________________________

Assessment Information

18. Name of person completing the assessment __________________________

19. Role of person completing the assessment:
   □ Early Intervention Specialist   □ Speech/Language Pathologist
   □ Occupational/Physical Therapist   □ Teacher of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing
   □ Program Specialist or Administrator   □ Teacher of the Visually Impaired
   □ Special Education Teacher □ Other

20. Assistance completing the assessment? □ Yes □ No
   If yes, what is that person’s relationship to the child? __________________________

*Use this Information Page for a child with an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) or Individualized Education Program (IEP) served by a California Department of Education program.


 

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Quick Guide to Rating the Measures

1. Review your documentation/evidence.

Review your own observation notes, observations from others (including teachers, family members/caregivers, and other service providers or caregivers, obtained through interview or conversations), and other documentation, including samples of children’s work, photographs, and video/audio recordings of children’s communication and behavior.

2. Carefully read the definition and the descriptors, looking for mastery.

Read the descriptors before you read the examples. As you read the descriptors, try to narrow down which one is most consistent with your observations and other documentation of the child’s typical behavior. A developmental level is mastered if the child demonstrates the knowledge, behaviors, and skills defined at that level:

  • Consistently over time
  • In different situations or settings

Important Note: When reading the descriptors, be sure you understand and pay attention to semicolons and the words “or” and “and.” Most descriptors define a single skill or behavior, but some include more than one. If the descriptor includes:

  • The word “or,” the child only needs to demonstrate the behavior in one of the ways listed for the developmental level to be considered mastered.
  • The word “and,” all parts of the descriptor are required for mastery and need to be observed together.
  • A semi-colon (;) followed by the word “and,” the child must demonstrate all the behaviors listed to master the level, but not necessarily during the same observation.
3. After you read the descriptors, consider the examples.

The examples represent only some of the possible ways a child might demonstrate mastery. They are not a checklist of what the child must demonstrate. It is possible that a child does not demonstrate any of the specific examples provided, but does demonstrate mastery in other ways that are consistent with the intent of the descriptor.

4. Based on your careful reading of the descriptors and examples and a review of your documentation, determine the child’s level of mastery.

Once you’ve determined the latest developmental level the child has mastered, mark it appropriately.

5. Indicate if the child is emerging to the next level (when the option to mark emerging is available).

If your observations indicate that the child has demonstrated mastery for a developmental level and is also beginning to demonstrate knowledge, skills, or behaviors described for the next level (although not yet consistently across situations or settings), the child may be emerging to the next level.

Remember, the examples illustrate only some of the many ways a child may demonstrate mastery.


 

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DRDP (2015) – A Developmental Continuum from Early Infancy to Kindergarten Entry

Infant/Toddler View Rating Record

For use with infants and toddlers in both Early Education and Special Education Programs

Child’s Name (First and Last): ________________________

Student ID (Issued by district for reporting to CASEMIS): ________________________

Assessment Period (e.g., Fall 2015): ________________________

Date DRDP (2015) was completed (e.g., 09/07/2015): ________ / ________ / ________

 

Note: The Rating Record is meant to be used together with the DRDP (2015) Instrument for keeping track of each child’s developmental levels as you complete the assessment.

Instructions: Write the child’s name, student identification number, and the date this Rating Record was completed. Mark the developmental level the child has mastered for each Measure. Check EM (emerging) if the child is “emerging” to the next level (optional). In the rare circumstance that you are unable to rate a Measure, mark UR.

Measure

Measure Name

Responding

Exploring

Building

Integrating

EM

UR

Earlier

Later

Earlier

Middle

Later

Earlier

Middle

Later

Earlier

ATL-REG 1

Attention Maintenance

 

 

 

 

ATL-REG 2

Self-Comforting

 

 

 

 

ATL-REG 3

Imitation

 

 

 

 

ATL-REG 4

Curiosity and Initiative in Learning

 

 

 

 

ATL-REG 5

Self-Control of Feelings and Behavior

 

 

 

 

SED 1

Identity of Self in Relation to Others

 

 

 

 

SED 2

Social and Emotional Understanding

 

 

 

 

SED 3

Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults

 

 

 

 

SED 4

Relationships and Social Interactions with Peers

 

 

 

 

SED 5

Symbolic and Sociodramatic Play

 

 

 

 

LLD 1

Understanding of Language (Receptive)

 

 

 

LLD 2

Responsiveness to Language

 

 

 

 

LLD 3

Communication and Use of Language (Expressive)

 

 

 

LLD 4

Reciprocal Communication and Conversation

 

 

 

LLD 5

Interest in Literacy

 

 

 

 

COG 1

Spatial Relationships

 

 

 

 

COG 2

Classification

 

 

 

 

COG 3

Number Sense of Quantity

 

 

 

 

Note: COG 4 - COG 7 and COG 10 are only for use for preschool age children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COG 8

Cause and Effect

 

 

 

 

COG 9

Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation

 

 

 

 

COG 11

Knowledge of the Natural World

 

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 1

Perceptual-Motor Skills and Movement Concepts

 

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 2

Gross Locomotor Movement Skills

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 3

Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 4

Fine Motor Manipulative Skills

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 5

Safety

 

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 6

Personal Care Routines: Hygiene

 

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 7

Personal Care Routines: Feeding

 

 

 

 

PD-HLTH 8

Personal Care Routines: Dressing

 

 

 

 


 

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DRDP (2015) – A Developmental Continuum from Early Infancy to Kindergarten Entry

Measures at-a-Glance

Infant/Toddler View

Domain Name

Domain Abbreviation

Number within Domain

Measure Name

Approaches to Learning –Self-Regulation

ATL-REG

1

Attention Maintenance

2

Self-Comforting

3

Imitation

4

Curiosity and Initiative in Learning

5

Self-Control of Feelings and Behavior

Social and Emotional Development

SED

1

Identity of Self in Relation to Others

2

Social and Emotional Understanding

3

Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults

4

Relationships and Social Interactions with Peers

5

Symbolic and Sociodramatic Play

Language and Literacy Development

LLD

1

Understanding of Language (Receptive)

2

Responsiveness to Language

3

Communication and Use of Language (Expressive)

4

Reciprocal Communication and Conversation

5

Interest in Literacy

Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG

1

Spatial Relationships

2

Classification

3

Number Sense of Quantity

Note: COG 4 - COG 7 and COG 10 are only for use for preschool age children

8

Cause and Effect

9

Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation

11

Knowledge of the Natural World

Physical Development –Health

PD-HLTH

1

Perceptual-Motor Skills and Movement Concepts

2

Gross Locomotor Movement Skills

3

Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

4

Fine Motor Manipulative Skills

5

Safety

6

Personal Care Routines: Hygiene

7

Personal Care Routines: Feeding

8

Personal Care Routines: Dressing


 

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Developmental Domain: ATL–REG – Approaches to Learning–Self–Regulation

ATL-REG 1: Attention Maintenance

Child develops the capacity to pay attention to people, things, or the environment when interacting with others or exploring play materials

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle Later Earlier

Attends or responds briefly to people,things, or sounds

Shifts attention frequently from one person or thing to another

Maintains attention, on own or with adult support, during brief activities

Maintains attention,with adult support,during activities thatlast for extended periods of time

Maintains attention on own during activities that last for extended periods of time

There are no later levels for this measure

 

 

Possible Examples
  • Pays attention to a moving mobile.
  • Quiets to the voice of a familiar person.
  • Gazes at the smiling face of a familiar person.
  • Turns attention toward an interesting toy, then back to an adult or a child.
  • Actively shifts interest from one child to another playing close by.
  • Drops one thing in order to reach for another.
  • Briefly watches other children playing and then resumes play with a toy.
  • Resumes playing at sand table when an adult joins in digging.
  • Dumps toy animals from container, puts animals back in the container, and then dumps them out again.
  • Listens to a book from beginning to end and then gestures for an adult to read it a second time.
  • Starts working on a simple puzzle with an adult and continues when the adult steps away briefly.
  • Continues playing with toy cars, adding a bridge offered by an adult sitting nearby.
  • Makes a pile of pretend pancakes with play dough on own and then offers them to peers.
  • Builds multiple towers with interlocking blocks.
  • Looks through several books on own in library corner during the morning.
  • Listens to audio books while looking at enlarged pictures related to the story on a screen, on own, during the morning.

 

 

 

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
ATL-REG1

Attention Maintenance

ATL-REG1

 

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Developmental Domain: ATL–REG – Approaches to Learning–Self–Regulation

ATL-REG 2: Self-Comforting

Child develops the capacity to comfort or soothe self in response to distress from internal or external stimulation

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle Later Earlier

Responds to internal or external stimulation in basic ways

Engages in behaviors that have previously worked to soothe self

Comforts self by seeking a familiar adult or a special thing

Comforts self in different ways, based on the situation

Anticipates need for comfort and prepares self by asking questions, getting a special thing, or in other ways

There are no later levels for this measure

 

 

Possible Examples
  • Cries when hears a loud noise.
  • Closes eyes when taken into bright sunlight.
  • Brings fist to mouth and fusses when hungry.
  • Sucks thumb or fist to soothe self.
  • Turns away from sensory experiences such as loud noises, bright lights, or specific textures.
  • Nuzzles face into a blanket or a familiar adult's shoulder when unfamiliar adults approach.
  • Retrieves a familiar object, such as a blanket, to soothe self when upset.
  • Gestures "up" to a familiar adult to be picked up when sleepy.
  • Seeks contact with a familiar adult when a toy is taken by another child.
  • Softly hums or vocalizes to self when lying down for naptime.
  • Goes to cubby and gets a photo of family when upset after a parent leaves.
  • Seeks out a cozy place to get away from active play of other children.
  • Remains seated in a small group activity while manipulating a favorite toy.
  • Asks what's going to happen next, to get ready to transition to a new activity.
  • Requests favorite book to read with parent before the parent leaves.
  • Moves away and covers ears when an adult brings out a vacuum to clean spilled sand on the floor.

 

 

 

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
ATL-REG2

Self-Comforting

ATL-REG2

 

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Developmental Domain: ATL–REG – Approaches to Learning–Self–Regulation

ATL-REG 3: Imitation

Child mirrors, repeats, and practices the actions or words of others in increasingly complex ways

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle Later Earlier

Responds to facial expressions or vocalizations in basic ways

Imitates approxima-tions of single simple actions or sounds when interacting with others

Imitates actions, or Repeats familiar words or gestures by others when interacting with them

Imitates a few actions, or Repeats familiar actions or words experienced at an earlier time

Imitates multiple steps of others’ actions, or Repeats phrases, experienced at an earlier time

There are no later levels for this measure

 

 

Possible Examples
  • Pays attention to vocalizations from an adult, such as cooing, heard during an interaction.
  • Attends to an adult's face during an interaction.
  • Orients toward the gestures of a familiar adult.
  • Makes a sound like "Mmmmm" after an adult makes the "Mmmmm" sound during feeding.
  • Smiles when an adult smiles.
  • Widens eyes and raises eyebrows after observing these movements on an adult's face during an interaction.
  • Opens and shuts hands as an adult leads openshut-them finger play.
  • Raises arms in the air, following an adult's actions, during a game of "So big!"
  • Communicates, "Bye-bye," and waves, after an adult communicates, "Byebye," and waves.
  • Holds a toy telephone to ear and says, "Hello."
  • Places doll in front of a toy shopping cart and wheels it around the room, placing objects in the cart.
  • Engages in exercise movements that adults typically do.
  • Wraps a teddy bear in a blanket and communicates, "Nightnight."
  • Communicates, "Be safe," (using adult intonation) when friends begin to move too fast through the classroom.
  • Pretends to cook a meal by taking out play food and pots, turning on a toy stove, and stirring the pots with a spoon.
  • Dresses up with fancy shoes and clothes in dress-up area, and communicates, "It's time to party."

 

 

 

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
ATL-REG3

Imitation

ATL-REG3

 

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Developmental Domain: ATL–REG – Approaches to Learning–Self–Regulation

ATL-REG 4: Curiosity and Initiative in Learning

Child explores the environment in increasingly focused ways to learn about people, things, materials, and events

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to people, things, or sounds

Notices new or unexpected characteristics or actions of people or things

Explores people or things in the immediate environment

Explores new ways to use familiar things, including simple trial and error

Explores through simple observations, or manipulations, or asking simple questions

Explores by engaging in specific observations, manipulations, or by asking specific questions

Carries out simple investigations using familiar strategies, tools, or sources of information

Carries out multi-step investigations, using a variety of strategies, tools, or sources of information

Possible Examples
  • Orients toward a noise.
  • Turns head toward a person who comes into view or begins talking.
  • Looks at a mobile.
  • Vocalizes or gazes at a familiar adult who makes an animated facial expression or unusual noise.
  • Smiles when an adult begins singing a song.
  • Moves arms or legs when a mobile begins moving overhead.
  • Bangs a drum with hands repeatedly.
  • Touches hair of another child.
  • Pats, pulls on, or turns pages of a board book.
  • Watches intently as an adult prepares snack.
  • Paints on paper and on arm when given a paintbrush and paint.
  • Molds sand using a cup.
  • Tries using utensils to work with play dough.
  • Moves around a fish bowl to continue watching a fish as it swims around objects.
  • Drops a marble in a maze and follows its path as it rolls to the bottom.
  • Asks, "What’s that doing?" when seeing or hearing a bulldozer across the street while on a neighborhood walk.
  • Puts a dry sponge in water and then squeezes it to see what happens.
  • Observes a snail and asks, "Why do snails have shells?"
  • Compares color or shape of leaves gathered on a nature walk.
  • Uses a magnetic wand to figure out which objects on a table it will lift up.
  • Uses a magnifying glass to observe a caterpillar closely, and describes its pattern of colors and number of legs.
  • Places a variety of objects in water to see which will float and which will sink.
  • Uses a communication device to learn about the new pet guinea pig.
  • Examines images from informational books or a computer to learn about the habitats of different animals.
  • Looks through a prism held up to the light, directing its motion until a rainbow of colors appears on the wall.
  • Sets up a project, with an adult, that involves investigating the growth of lima bean plants with different amounts of water, and documents their growth.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
ATL-REG4

Curiosity and Initiative in Learning

ATL-REG4

 

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Developmental Domain: ATL–REG – Approaches to Learning–Self–Regulation

ATL-REG 5: Self-Control of Feelings and Behavior

Child increasingly develops strategies for regulating feelings and behavior, becoming less reliant on adult guidance over time

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Calms when comforted by an adult

Seeks a familiar adult when distressed, and responds when physically comforted by a familiar adult

Calms self when a familiar adult initiates contact, moves close, or offers a special thing

Relies on communication or guidance from a familiar adult to regulate emotional or behavioral reactions in moderately stressful situations

Demonstrates capacity to regulate emotional or behavioral reactions in some moderately stressful situations, occasionally needing adult support

Expresses strong feelings through constructive forms of communication, seeking the assistance of familiar adults when needed

Uses simple strategies (e.g., leaving a difficult situation, offering an alternative toy to a friend) to regulate own feelings or behaviors

Uses socially appropriate strategies (e.g., negotiation, compromise, verbal reminders to self) to regulate own feelings or behaviors

Possible Examples
  • Lessens or stops crying when picked up by an adult.
  • Relaxes in an adult's arms when being held.
  • Quiets to the voice of a familiar adult.
  • Reaches toward a familiar adult to be comforted and nestles into the adult when held.
  • Vocalizes to a familiar adult and calms when the adult reaches over to pat child's stomach.
  • Looks toward a familiar adult when startled, and relaxes when picked up.
  • Gets up and looks for an adult after falling down, and then resumes play when the adult gives a reassuring look.
  • Stops crying after an adult offers a toy similar to the toy another child took.
  • Calms when an adult moves to sit closer on the floor.
  • Lets go of another child's toy and accepts a different toy after a familiar adult communicates, "She's playing with the blue truck. You can use the red one."
  • Gets a towel when an adult suggests that they work together to clean up a spill that the child is upset about.
  • Accepts an adult's invitation to move closer, after noticing child's worried look when an unfamiliar adult enters the room.
  • Waits to ride a favorite tricycle without trying to take it from another child.
  • Pauses and sighs after tower falls down, and then starts to rebuild it when an adult asks, "Do you want to make it again?"
  • Frowns, but goes to play with something else, when an adult communicates that it is not yet time to go outside.
  • Insists that another child return a favorite doll, but when refused, asks a familiar adult for help.
  • Communicates feelings of anger, through words or gestures, to a familiar adult when another child takes a toy without asking.
  • Communicates, "Tôi muổn ngối ở dây," ["I want to sit here," in Vietnamese], when upset that there are no empty chairs near a friend.
  • Offers a toy in exchange when another child has a desired toy.
  • Asks another child who is painting at an easel, "When is it my turn? I've been waiting."
  • Leaves the block area after unsuccessfully attempting to join peers, and then moves to the dramatic play area to join other children in play.
  • Communicates, "I want a turn. Can I use the scooter after you go around two times?" after watching another child ride for a while.
  • Communicates, "Don't push!" to another child trying to fit at the water table, and then says, "Here's a place," and moves over.
  • Communicates to self, in words or signs, that the monsters are just pretend, when attending to a scary story.
  • Uses a communication device to suggest a strategy to share the limited number of popular art materials during a collage project.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
ATL-REG5

Self-Control of Feelings and Behavior

ATL-REG5

 

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Developmental Domain: SED — Social and Emotional Development

SED 1: Identity of Self in Relation to Others

Child shows increasing awareness of self as distinct from and also related to others

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds in basic ways to others

Uses senses to explore self and others

Recognizes self and familiar people

Communicates own name and names of familiar people (e.g., "dada," "mama," "grandma," or sibling's name)

Expresses simple ideas about self and connection to others

Describes self or others based on physical characteristics

Describes own preferences or feelings; and Describes the feelings or desires of family members, friends, or other familiar people

Compares own preferences or feelings to those of others

Possible Examples
  • Attends to a familiar adult during feeding.
  • Quiets when hears a familiar adult.
  • Grasps an adult’s finger when palm of child's hand is touched.
  • Examines own hand or foot by looking at it or mouthing it.
  • Touches others' hair when it is within reach.
  • Plays with sound by repeating grunts and squeals.
  • Orients toward a familiar adult when own name is spoken or signed.
  • Points to picture of self on the wall.
  • Smiles when a familiar adult enters the room.
  • Communicates, "Me llamo Luis," ["My name is Luis," in Spanish].
  • Communicates names of immediate family members in a photo.
  • Looks to new baby sister and communicates her name.
  • Acts out roles from own family in pretend play.
  • Communicates, "I'm making cookies–just like Grandma!" while rolling play dough.
  • Draws picture of a house and communicates, "This is my house."
  • Communicates, using communication board, "His hair is red!"
  • Identifies own height, as indicated on a growth chart posted on the wall.
  • Narrates details while drawing a picture of a friend.
  • Draws a picture of own family, representing traits such as heights and hair colors.
  • Communicates to an adult, "I was mad when it rained because we couldn't go outside."
  • Communicates that a friend is happy because he is going to have a birthday party.
  • Says, "Ayokong hawakan ang susô. Na tatakot ako," ["I don't want to touch the snail. It scares me," in Tagalog].
  • Selects a pink scarf for a friend whose favorite color is pink, then selects a blue scarf for self.
  • Communicates to a peer that they both like peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.
  • Communicates, "“我喜 歡游泳, 但是我姐 姐不喜歡,”," ["I love to swim, but my sister doesn't," in Chinese].
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
SED 1

Identity of Self in Relation to Others

SED 1

 

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Developmental Domain: SED — Social and Emotional Development

SED 2: Social and Emotional Understanding

Child shows developing understanding of people's behaviors, feelings, thoughts, and individual characteristics

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to faces, voices, or actions of other people

Shows awareness of what to expect from familiar people by responding to or anticipating their actions

Adjusts behavior in response to emotional expressions of familiar people, especially in novel or uncertain situations

Adjusts behavior in response to emotional expressions of people who are less familiar

Identifies own or others' feelings

Communicates, with adult assistance, about feelings that caused own behavior or others' behavior

Communicates ideas about why one has a feeling or what will happen as a result of a feeling

Communicates ideas about how own or another's personality affects how one thinks, feels, and acts

Possible Examples
  • Looks at faces.
  • Turns head toward an adult during feeding.
  • Grasps an adult's finger when palm of child's hand is touched.
  • Smiles when an adult continues after pausing during a game of pattycake.
  • Looks toward the location of where an adult's face will reappear during a game of peeka-boo.
  • Kicks legs in excitement or adjusts body when a familiar adult leans forward to pick child up.
  • Pays attention to a familiar adult's facial expressions when an unfamiliar person enters the room.
  • Stops playing, looks up, and then smiles when hearing a familiar adult's laugh.
  • Starts to climb on a table, but pauses in response to an adult's cautionary look and warning.
  • Moves or looks toward a familiar adult when a less familiar adult enters the room.
  • Pauses after reaching toward a peer's toy, to check on a less familiar adult's response.
  • Stops in response to a warning from another child's parent about getting too close to the swing.
  • Communicates, "También me gusta pintar, me hace feliz," ["I like to paint, too; it makes me happy," in Spanish] after noticing a child at an easel.
  • Communicates that a crying child is sad.
  • Communicates, "She wants the big truck."
  • Points to "angry" picture on emotion chart while looking at a peer.
    • Responds that a friend is sad, when an adult asks, "Why did your friend get his blanket?"
    • Communicates that the turtle was scared, when an adult asks, "Why did the turtle go into its shell?"
    • Communicates, "Cô bé nhớ mệ của mình," ["She misses her mommy," in Vietnamese] when an adult asks, "What happened?"
  • Communicates, "Magagalit siya kapag bumagsak na naman ang kanyang tulay," ["He'll be mad if his bridge is knocked down again," in Tagalog].
  • Uses a communication device to express, "I feel sleepy when it gets dark."
  • Communicates, "I'm bored. I'm going to play with the blocks now.'
  • Communicates to a peer, "You're silly," when the peer starts giggling and other children join in.
  • Communicates that a peer is shy when seeing her hide as an unfamiliar adult approaches.
  • Communicates that another child plays with everyone because he is so friendly.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
SED 2

Social and Emotional Understanding

SED 2

 

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Developmental Domain: SED — Social and Emotional Development

SED 3: Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults

Child shows increasing awareness of self as distinct from and also related to others

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to faces, voices, or actions of familiar people

Shows a preference for familiar adults and tries to interact with them

Interacts in simple ways with familiar adults and tries to maintain the interactions

Initiates activities with familiar adults; and Seeks out assistance or support from familiar adults

Engages in extended interactions with familiar adults in a variety of situations (e.g., sharing ideas or experiences, solving simple problems)

Seeks a familiar adult's ideas or explanations about events or experiences that are interesting to the child

Takes initiative in creating cooperative activities with a familiar adult

Works cooperatively with familiar adults, over sustained periods, to plan and carry out activities or to solve problems

Possible Examples
  • Widens eyes or brightens face at the face of a familiar adult.
  • Orients toward a familiar adult's voice.
  • Quiets when picked up by a familiar adult.
  • Reaches for a familiar adult when being held by another adult.
  • Vocalizes at a familiar adult to gain the adult's attention.
  • Laughs in anticipation before a familiar adult nuzzles child's neck.
  • Places toy on a familiar adult's lap, goes to get another toy, and then places that toy on the adult's lap.
  • Puts hands near head to continue a game of peeka-boo when a familiar adult pauses.
  • Repeatedly hands little cars to a familiar adult to continue a joint activity.
  • Grasps a familiar adult's hand to gain attention, and then gestures to begin a finger-play game.
  • Communicates interest in looking at a book with a familiar adult.
  • Brings a blanket to a familiar adult and then climbs into the adult's lap when upset.
  • Gestures to a familiar adult for assistance about how to remove a tight lid from a canister.
  • Communicates to a familiar adult, "Want some tea?" during a pretend tea party.
  • Completes a simple puzzle with a familiar adult, taking turns to fit pieces.
  • Shares rocks collected while playing outside with a familiar adult.
  • Uses an electronic tablet to play a game with a familiar adult.
  • Asks a teacher why another child is not going outside with the group.
  • Communicates to an adult, "What's the bee doing?" while watching a bee fly from flower to flower or sharing a book together about bees.
  • Asks a familiar adult for a suggestion about how to build the tower to keep it from falling down.
  • Offers to place napkins and cups on the table when a familiar adult is preparing a snack.
  • Brings a board game to a familiar adult and communicates an interest in playing together.
  • Gives pretend food to a familiar adult and communicates, "I made some hamburgers for you. You tell me what you want to drink."
  • Works together with a familiar adult to complete a puzzle over several days, organizing pieces in different ways.
  • Plans a gardening activity with a familiar adult, communicating by signing the materials needed.
  • Gathers possible construction materials, such as glue, paper, and scissors, from a supply shelf to contribute to a building project with a familiar adult.
  • Works with a familiar adult and a group of children to make a piñata over two days, offering alternatives for its shape and construction and what will go inside.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
SED 3

Relationships and Social Interactions with Familiar Adults

SED 3

 

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Developmental Domain: SED — Social and Emotional Development

SED 4: Relationships and Social Interactions with Peers

Child becomes increasingly competent and cooperative in interactions with peers and develops friendships with several peers

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Shows awareness of other people, including children

Shows interest in other children

Plays alongside other children, rarely interacting with them

Interacts in simple ways with familiar peers as they play side by side

Participates in brief episodes of cooperative play with one or two peers, especially those with whom child regularly plays

Participates in extended episodes of cooperative play (including pretend play) with one or two friends

Initiates sustained episodes of cooperative play (including pretend play), particularly with friends

Organizes or participates in planning cooperative play activities with several peers, particularly with friends

Possible Examples
  • Cries when hearing the sound of another child crying.
  • Orients toward other children.
  • Notices another child nearby.
  • Moves excitedly when another child comes near.
  • Reaches toward another child to gain attention.
  • Smiles at another child.
  • Selects a truck when other children nearby are playing with trucks.
  • Explores a toy alongside another child who is also exploring.
  • Reaches for a toy in the water alongside other children at the water table.
  • Hands a bucket to a familiar peer sitting next to child in the sandbox.
  • Offers a block to a peer building a tower next to child.
  • Splashes excitedly with a peer at the water table, continuing back and forth.
  • Takes a few turns trying on hats with a peer in the dramatic play area.
  • Plays chase briefly outside with two peers, and then goes to play alone in sandbox.
  • Plays cars with a peer for a short while.
  • Builds a train track with two friends, taking turns connecting the track pieces.
  • Laughs and makes funny noises or faces with a friend while singing a song together.
  • Plays a game of telephone that involves having a conversation with a friend about going on a shopping trip together.
  • Invites friends to build a pretend barn for toy animals and, at clean-up time, asks to save it so they can play with it tomorrow.
  • Invites friends to continue playing family from the day before.
  • Offers a new object for a fort that child has built with peers over several days.
  • Plays restaurant with friends, showing them the signs for food to be ordered.
  • Plans how to build a boat with several peers, choosing materials and negotiating tasks.
  • Plays superheroes with peers, planning different characters and scenarios.
  • Joins peers in planning and gathering materials needed for a nature walk, such as nets, baskets, and bags.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
SED 4

Relationships and Social Interactions with Peers

SED 4

 

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Developmental Domain: SED — Social and Emotional Development

SED 5: Symbolic and Sociodramatic Play

Child develops the capacity to use objects to represent other objects or ideas and to engage in symbolic play with others

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to people or objects in basic ways

Explores people and objects in a variety of ways

Uses or combines objects in functional or meaningful ways

Pretends that an object represents another object or serves a different purpose

Engages in pretendplay sequences

Engages in pretend play with others around a shared idea

Engages in roles in pretend-play sequences with others

Engages in pretendplay sequences with others by organizing and negotiating roles or rules around a shared elaborated idea

Possible Examples
  • Cries in response to a loud voice.
  • Looks toward a lamp when it is turned on.
  • Moves arm in response to a touch.
  • Reaches toward an adult's glasses.
  • Grabs a toy, shakes it, and then shakes it again.
  • Picks up a toy and mouths it.
  • Gazes intently at an adult's changing facial expressions.
  • Rocks a doll in arms.
  • Uses a brush on a doll's hair.
  • Pushes a toy car along the floor.
  • Places objects from around the room in a toy shopping cart.
  • Uses a stacking ring as a bagel.
  • Holds a rectangular block to ear and talks into it as if it is a phone.
  • Pretends that puzzle pieces are cookies.
  • Pretends to be a doctor and takes care of a stuffed bear that is "sick."
  • Makes a pretend cake in the sandbox and offers a "taste " to an adult.
  • Makes a "pizza" out of play dough and puts it in the play oven.
  • Sits in a box, pretending it is a boat.
  • Sits in a box with a peer, holding a "steering wheel," and communicates, "My turn to drive the bus."
  • Pours "coffee" for friends while seated together at a table in the dramatic play area.
  • Pretends to put out fires on the playground with others, using pretend hoses and wearing firefighter hats.
  • Pumps arm while saying, "Whoo-whoo," and then collects "tickets" from seated "passengers."
  • Plays store, "scanning" items, placing them in bags, and collecting "money" from peers.
  • Uses a hose to "pump gas" as other children wait in line with their tricycles
  • Agrees with peers on who will be the bus driver, who will be the child, and who will be the mommy, while acting out school-bus play.
  • Plans with peers to pretend to be a family going on a trip: using chairs as seats for a car, negotiating roles, and deciding where they will go.
  • Assigns roles and acts out classroom routines (e.g., circle time, snack time) with other children.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
SED 5

Symbolic and Sociodramatic Play

SED 5

 

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Developmental Domain: LLD — Language and Literacy Development

LLD 1: Understanding of Language (Receptive)

Child understands increasingly complex communication and language

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to voices, sounds, gestures, or facial expressions in basic ways

Responds to voices, gestures, or facial expressions in a variety of ways (e.g., gaze aversion, vocalization, movements)

Recognizes a few frequently used words or gestures in familiar situations

Shows understanding of a variety of single words

Shows understanding of frequently used simple phrases or sentences

Shows understanding of a wide variety of phrases or sentences

Shows understanding of some complex vocabulary, phrases, or sentences as used in conversations, stories, or learning activities

Shows understanding of language that refers to abstract concepts, including imaginary events

Shows understanding of a series of complex statements that explain how or why things happen

Possible Examples
  • Turns head toward, or looks in the direction of, the voice of an adult.
  • Makes eye contact with a familiar adult.
  • Quiets or orients in the direction of a sound, touch, or gesture.
  • Smiles or gurgles in response to a familiar adult's voice or simple gestures.
  • Makes a sound similar to "Mmmmm" during a social interaction with a familiar adult.
  • Averts eyes to disengage from a social interaction with an adult.
  • Waves, "Bye-bye," after an adult communicates, "Goodbye."
  • Bounces or waves arms to indicate interest in continuing an activity after an adult pauses and asks, "More?"
  • Orients toward a familiar person or thing when it is named.
  • Indicates a bell in a storybook when adult asks about a bell.
  • Looks to the wagon after an adult refers to the wagon
  • Points to pictures of a bird, a tree, and a house, as an adult says the name of each, while looking at a book together.
  • Gets jacket after an adult communicates, "Get your jacket. It's time to go outside."
  • Moves to the sink after an adult communicates, "Time to wash hands."
  • Passes the milk at lunch time after an adult communicates, "Please pass the milk."
  • Offers to help after an adult communicates, "Would you like to help me feed the turtle?"
  • Collects different types of art supplies after an adult explains an art project and where to find the supplies.
  • Hands crayons from the shelf after an adult asks, "Can you hand me the crayons that are on the shelf?"
  • Adds blocks to a tower after a peer says, "Let's make our skyscraper the tallest!"
  • Holds the door open, after an adult asks the child to do so, until all of the other children have come into the room.
  • Points to the picture of an eagle and its nest while sharing a book about animals building their homes.
  • Communicates, "I'm a princess and I live in a castle," while playing dress-up.
  • Pretends to be a character in a story after a read-aloud of the story.
  • Draws a picture of a cocoon after sharing a book about the life cycle of a butterfly.
  • Explains how to plant seeds to a peer after an adult reads a book about planting seeds.
  • Draws a picture about the changing seasons, after an adult talks about why the weather has changed.
  • Selects materials that float, while making a boat, after hearing an adult talk about materials that float or sink.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
LLD 1

Understanding of Language (Receptive)

LLD 1

 

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Developmental Domain: LLD — Language and Literacy Development

LLD 2: Responsiveness to Language

Child communicates or acts in response to language and responds to increasingly complex language

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to voices, sounds, gestures, or facial expressions in basic ways

Responds to voices, gestures, or facial expressions in a variety of ways (e.g., eye gaze, gaze aversion, vocalization, movements)

Responds to a few frequently used words or gestures in familiar situations

Responds to simple comments that relate to a present situation

Responds to one-step requests or questions that involve a familiar activity or routine

Carries out a one-step request that relates to a new or an unfamiliar activity or situation

Carries out multi-step requests that involve a familiar activity or situation

Carries out multi-step requests that involve a new or unfamiliar activity or situation

Possible Examples
  • Turns head or looks in direction of voices.
  • Sustains gaze at an adult's smiling face.
  • Quiets or orients in the direction of a sound or gesture.
  • Cries when child hears another child cry.
  • Smiles in response to a familiar adult's voice or gestures.
  • Vocalizes in response to a familiar adult’s voice.
  • Moves toward a familiar adult's extended arms.
  • Turns head and looks away after a familiar adult offers a bottle or food again.
  • Reaches for a familiar object after it is named.
  • Communicates, "Bye-bye," in response to a parent waving and saying, "Byebye."
  • Signs, "More," after an adult asks, "More milk?"
  • Looks up at sky after an adult communicates, "There’s an airplane."
  • Moves toward the sandbox after an adult says, "I see new toys in the sandbox."
  • Communicates, "Okay," after an adult says, "Your friend wants to play, too."
  • Calms when adult communicates, "Your turn is next."
  • Picks up sand toys after an adult says, "Please pick up the sand toys."
  • Brings a watering can to the garden after a peer asks, "Want to water?"
  • Brings shoes after an adult requests, "Bring me your shoes. I'll help you put them on."
  • Uses a communication board to make a choice when an adult says, "Tell me what you would like to do next."
  • Communicates, "Yo," ["Me," in Spanish], after an adult asks, "Who is the helper for snack?"
  • Puts compostable cup into compost bin recently added to the room after adult communicates, "Please put your cup in the compost bin."
  • Follows simple direction to tag another child when learning a new game.
  • Gets drum after adult communicates, "Let's get ready for the new music teacher."
  • Puts toy in cubby and goes to rug when adult communicates it is time to put your toy in the cubby and go to the rug for story time.
  • Follows the steps communicated by an adult at the end of an art activity to remove smock, hang it up, and then wash hands.
  • Follows adult's request to "push your chair in, put your book in the cubby, and wash your hands."
  • Chooses a book and then carries it to the library counter after an adult says, "Find a book and take it to the library counter."
  • Gathers different materials from outside, brings them inside, and places them on a table, as suggested by an adult, to create a nature display.
  • Cares for a new pet for the first time by providing clean water, food, and fresh shavings for a guinea pig, after being told the steps by a peer.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
LLD 2

Responsiveness to Language

LLD 2

 

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Developmental Domain: LLD — Language and Literacy Development

LLD 3: Communication and Use of Language (Expressive)

Child's communication develops from nonverbal communication to using language with increasingly complex words and sentences

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Makes sounds spontaneously

Uses sounds, gestures, or facial expressions to communicate

Uses a few "first words," word-like sounds, or gestures to communicate

Uses a variety of single words to communicate

Uses two words together to communicate

Uses short phrases or sentences of more than two words to communicate

Uses short sentences that contain nouns, verbs, and other words, such as adjectives and recently encountered vocabulary, to communicate

Uses phrases and sentences with a variety of word forms, including past tense, future tense, plurals, pronouns, or possessives, to communicate, sometimes with errors

Combines phrases and sentences with a variety of word forms to communicate ideas or to describe people, objects, or events

Possible Examples
  • Cries.
  • Coos.
  • Gurgles.
  • Smiles when a familiar person approaches.
  • Cries or looks at an adult when hungry.
  • Vocalizes or babbles while interacting with an adult.
  • Asks for food when hungry, by using a special word, sound, or gesture for food.
  • Communicates, "Mama," "Dada," "Baba," or similar word approximations.
  • Reaches for or gestures for an object.
  • Names familiar foods, toys, or family members.
  • Communicates ideas such as "No," "More," or "Up."
  • Indicates a picture of a ball when asked what the child wants to play with next.
  • Communicates, "Mommy come," when wanting a parent.
  • Communicates, "More juice," when thirsty.
  • Communicates, "“我的 卡車!" ["My truck!" in Chinese] after another child takes a toy truck.
  • Communicates, "A mÍ me toca," ["It's my turn," in Spanish] when an adult brings the pet rabbit for a visit.
  • Communicates, "I want mommy."
  • Communicates, "I like dogs," while looking at an animal book.
  • Communicates, "The rabbit is scared," when the pet rabbit snuggles into an adult's lap. ("Scared" is an adjective.)
  • Communicates using a communication board, "I need a tissue. My nose is runny." ("Tissue" is a noun and "runny" is an adjective.)
  • Communicates, "Malaking malaki ang aso namin," ["Our dog is huge," in Tagalog] after hearing a peer use the word "huge." ("Huge" is a recently encountered vocabulary word.)
  • Communicates to a peer, during play, "Yesterday we made vegetable soup." ("We" is a pronoun; "made" is past tense.)
  • Communicates, "His birthday is tomorrow. He will be five." ("His" is a possessive pronoun; "he" is a pronoun; "will be" is future tense.)
  • Communicates in sign language that the cat's feet are wet. ("Cat's" is possessive; "feet" is plural.)
  • Communicates, "He runned really fast," [He ran really fast]. ("Runned" is past tense with a grammatical error.)
  • Communicates, "Dragons don't need bikes 'cause they can fly. They have really big wings."
  • Communicates to a peer, "Let's hurry and clean up so we can go outside to ride bikes."
  • Communicates via spoken words, signs, or a communication device, "The dog ate the cat's food, and then he got in trouble. We put him outside and he was very sad."
  • Communicates, "Mi abuela es muy vieja. Tiene el cabello blanco y muchas arrugas," "My grandma is really old. She has white hair and lots of wrinkles," in Spanish].
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
LLD 3

Communication and Use of Language (Expressive)

LLD 3

 

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Developmental Domain: LLD — Language and Literacy Development

LLD 4: Reciprocal Communication and Conversation

Child engages in back–and–forth communication that develops into increasingly extended conversations *

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to sounds or movements of others in basic ways

Responds to or seeks contact with familiar adults, using vocalizations, gestures, or facial expressions during interactions

Engages in brief back-and-forth communication with a familiar adult, using word approximations, vocalizations, gestures, or facial expressions

Engages in brief back-and-forth communication with a familiar adult, using simple words or conventional gestures to communicate meaning

Engages in brief back-and-forth communication, combining words to communicate meaning

Engages in brief back-and-forth communication, using short phrases and sentences

Engages in brief conversations with a shared focus

Engages in conversations with a shared focus, contributing clarifying comments or building on the other person's ideas

Engages in extended focused conversations that involve reasoning, predicting, problem solving, or understanding ideas

Possible Examples
  • Looks in the direction of voices or movement.
  • Quiets in response to sound.
  • Turns toward the soft touch of an adult.
  • Looks at a familiar adult during feeding.
  • Smiles at an approaching familiar adult.
  • Makes sounds when a familiar adult stops talking.
  • Reaches toward a familiar adult.
  • Expresses, "Ba," in response to an adult talking about a ball, and then waits for the adult to respond.
  • Waves, "Good-bye," after parent waves, "Goodbye."
  • Covers eyes to signal an adult to continue playing peek-a-boo.
  • Communicates, "Yes," or "No," after an adult asks, "Do you want more milk?"
  • Rubs eyes and responds, "Night-night," after a familiar adult asks, "Are you tired?"
  • Brings a ball to an adult, and then responds, "Ball," after the adult asks, "Do you want me to play ball with you?"
  • Makes eye contact with an adult while holding a stuffed bear. When the adult asks, "Whose teddy bear is that?" communicates, "My bear."
  • Communicates with an adult, during lunch, "Thêm phô mai,” ["More cheese," in Vietnamese]. When the adult responds, "You really like cheese!" communicates, "Con thích phô mai," ["I like cheese," in Vietnamese].
  • Communicates, "That's a monkey," while reading a story with an adult. When the adult says, "Yes, he's climbing," replies, "Climbing up high."
  • Communicates, "我是 寶寶," ["I'm the baby," in Chinese] after a peer communicates, "I'm the mommy," while playing house.
  • Hands play dough to a peer. When the peer takes the play dough and says, "I'm gonna make a dog," responds, "I'm making a snake."
  • Asks a peer for some blocks to put in child's truck while playing with trucks. When the peer replies, "Here," and hands over several blocks, responds, "That's too many," and takes only two blocks from the peer
  • Communicates, "That's my family," while looking at a photo with a peer. When the peer says, "You have two sisters," responds, "I have a big sister, and that's my baby sister."
  • Responds to an adult's comments about animals that live in the zoo, "Fui al zoológico," ["I went to the zoo," in Spanish]. When an adult replies, "There are lots of animals in the zoo," child says, "Los caimanes son los animales que más me gustan," ["I like the alligators best," in Spanish] and continues to converse about other animals at the zoo.
  • Has a brief conversation with a peer while looking at a caterpillar together. Comments, "That is really hairy." When peer responds, "Yeah, really hairy," child continues, "He has lots of legs, too."
  • Has a conversation with a peer about things that they like to do together with their families. Says, "My family goes to the park on Sundays." When peer asks, "Every Sunday?" child responds, "Yeah, but sometimes we go to the park with the swimming pool and sometimes the park with the big playground." Then when peer says, "My grandma takes me to the park," child responds, "My grandma takes me to the store." Conversation continues.
  • Has a conversation with an adult about the size of dinosaurs. When the adult says that dinosaurs were all different sizes, child responds by naming a big dinosaur, then naming a small dinosaur. Then when the adult says that some dinosaurs had horns, child continues the conversation by saying that some dinosaurs flew like birds.
  • Has a conversation with an adult while planting sunflower seeds together, asking how to plant the seeds and making guesses about how big the plants will get and how long it will take before the plants begin to grow.
  • Has a conversation with a peer before and while building a fort, including offering ideas on what materials they need and suggesting ways to make sure that the walls keep standing as they are building it.
  • Has a conversation with an adult about how dinosaurs lived and how people live, providing suggestions about what it would be like if dinosaurs and people lived in the same place.

* Conversations can include communication using sign language or alternative communication systems.

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
LLD 4

Reciprocal Communication and Conversation

LLD 4

 

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Developmental Domain: LLD — Language and Literacy Development

LLD 5: Interest in Literacy

Child shows interest in books, songs, rhymes, stories, and other literacy activities in increasingly complex ways

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Attends or responds to people or things in basic ways

Plays with books; and Responds to other literacy activities

Attends briefly to a familiar adult reading books, singing songs, or saying rhymes

Looks at books on own briefly, or Chooses to join reading, singing, or rhyming activities led by an adult

Looks at books page by page, or Participates, from beginning to end, in listening to stories, singing songs, or playing rhyming games, when supported by an adult

Initiates looking at and talking about books, listening to and talking about stories, singing songs, or playing rhyming games

Extends literacy activities by retelling a story, drawing pictures about a story, or acting out a story

Initiates literacy activities that relate to classroom experiences as well as to own experiences or interests

Possible Examples
  • Quiets to the sound of a familiar voice.
  • Moves in response to an approach by a familiar adult.
  • Orients to an adult's face or voice during a caregiving routine.
  • Interacts with a cloth or board book by holding or mouthing it.
  • Pats a textured board book.
  • Vocalizes or laughs in response to an adult singing and gesturing a simple finger-play song, such as, "Pat-a-Cake" or "Los cinco deditos," ["Five Little Fingers," a finger play in Spanish].
  • Looks at pictures in a book for a short time while a familiar adult reads the book.
  • Reaches to turn the page of a board book as a familiar adult talks or signs about the pictures on the page.
  • Uses simple hand movements to participate during a familiar song or rhyme with a familiar adult.
  • Touches textured or tactile content on pages of a book as an adult is reading the book.
  • Joins a group doing a simple finger play led by an adult.
  • Points at a picture when joining an adult who is reading a book, newspaper, or tablet.
  • Picks up a book and looks at pictures, turns a few pages, and then drops the book to go play.
  • Pretends to read a book from start to finish.
  • Explores a book with Braille and tactile content with hands.
  • Sings some words of a familiar song, from beginning to end, with an adult.
  • Asks questions or communicates about why something happened in a story.
  • Starts a song or rhyme with others while playing outside.
  • Uses finger puppets while reciting a familiar rhyme.
  • Uses flannel-board pieces to retell parts of a story after story time.
  • Retells a familiar story to a peer while pretending to read from a book.
  • Uses a communication device to tell the sequence of events in a favorite story.
  • Pretends to be a character from a story, using props.
  • Chooses to read a book related to a particular theme or interest (e.g., dinosaurs or fairies).
  • Asks for help finding a book about bugs after a nature walk.
  • Participates, with others, in using the computer to create a story about a class trip.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
LLD 5

Interest in Literacy

LLD 5

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 1: Spatial Relationships

Child understands increasingly complex communication and language

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle Later Earlier

Moves body parts in basic ways

Attends or responds as objects, people, or own body move through space

Explores how self or objects fit in or fill up different spaces

Explores spatial relationships (e.g., distance, position, direction), or movement of self or objects through space, trying a variety of possibilities

Takes into account spatial relationships (e.g., distance, position, direction) and physical properties (e.g., size, shape) when exploring possibilities of fitting objects together or moving through space

There are no later levels for this measure

 

 

Possible Examples
  • Moves hand to mouth.
  • Lifts head from an adult's shoulder.
  • Stretches while lying on back.
  • Turns toward an adult who enters the room.
  • Watches and tracks a moving object.
  • Lifts arms toward an adult as the adult reaches down to pick child up.
  • Tries to squeeze body between a chair and the legs of a table to get a toy.
  • Fills a purse or bucket, sometimes until it is overflowing.
  • Rotates a puzzle piece that has a large knob, while trying to fit it into a space on a wooden puzzle.
  • Attempts to put a starshaped piece into the square-, triangle-, and star-shaped openings of a shape sorter.
  • Repeatedly rolls various objects down a ramp.
  • Changes directions to move around several obstacles while pushing a toy shopping cart.
  • Uses hands to explore shape outlines in a puzzle board, and then explores puzzle pieces with hands to fit pieces into the puzzle board.
  • Chooses puzzle pieces that are approximately the right size and shape to fit into a puzzle.
  • Stacks a few nesting cups on top of each other to create a tower, with the largest cup on the bottom and smaller ones on top.
  • Maneuvers a ride-on toy (without pedals) around people and objects on the playground, sometimes bumping into things.
  • Moves around people and objects in the classroom, using a mobility aid, such as a walker.
     
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 1

Attention Maintenance

COG 1

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 2: Classification

Child shows an increasing ability to compare, match, and sort objects into groups according to their attributes

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Attends to people, objects, or events

Interacts differently with familiar people and objects than with unfamiliar people and objects

Associates a person or object with another person or object, based on a similarity or relationship between them

Selects some objects that are similar from a collection of objects

Sorts objects into two groups based on one attribute, but not always accurately

Sorts objects accurately into two or more groups based on one attribute

Sorts objects into two or more groups based on one attribute, then puts all the objects together and re-sorts the entire collection into new groups

Sorts objects into groups based on at least two attributes, sometimes sorting by one attribute and then subdividing those groups based on a second attribute

Possible Examples
  • Looks at people's faces.
  • Quiets in response to an adult's voice.
  • Closes hand around an adult's finger.
  • Smiles at a familiar adult's face or voice.
  • Reaches for own special blanket or toy from home.
  • Turns face away from an approaching unfamiliar adult.
  • Looks for the hammer that goes with the pounding bench.
  • Looks at another child when the child's parent walks into the room.
  • Looks for baby bottle when playing with baby doll.
  • Selects the shovels from among toys in the sandbox.
  • Takes some apples out of a basket that contains apples and bananas while helping an adult prepare a snack.
  • Picks out some train cars from a box of toys.
  • Separates blocks into a blue pile and a green pile, leaving a few green blocks in the blue pile.
  • Sorts rocks into two piles, big and small, after a neighborhood walk.
  • Picks out toy trucks from a basket of toys and sets them on a nearby shelf, and then picks out toy cars from the basket and sets them on a different shelf.
  • Separates a pile of toy animals by kind (e.g., dogs, cats, and birds).
  • Puts crayons, pencils, and markers into different containers.
  • Sorts a group of big squares and little squares into two piles by using eye gaze to indicate where an adult should put each square.
  • Sorts buttons by color, and then sorts all of them again by shape or size.
  • Sorts shoes based on color, and then re-sorts by type (e.g., slippers, boots, tennis shoes).
  • Sorts flannel-board pieces by type (e.g., shoes, pants, and shirts), and then separates them by adult items and baby items.
  • Separates tiles into four groups: blue circles, blue squares, red circles, and red squares.
  • Removes utensils from the play kitchen and sorts them into groups: big spoons, small spoons, big forks, and small forks.
  • Sorts the bin of interlocking blocks into several piles, first by color, then by shape (e.g., squares and rectangles).
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 2

Classification

COG 2

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 3: Number Sense of Quantity

Child shows developing understanding of number and quantity

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to people or objects in basic ways

Responds to changes in the number of objects observed or interacted with

Demonstrates awareness of quantity

Uses number names, but not always correctly, in situations related to number or quantity

Identifies small quantities without counting, up to three

Counts up to five objects using one-to-one correspondence; and Recites numbers in order, one through ten

Shows understanding that the last number counted is the total number of objects in the group

Solves simple everyday problems involving numbers by counting up to 10 objects using one-to-one correspondence; and Recites numbers correctly, up to 20

Possible Examples
  • Looks at objects that are hanging from a mobile.
  • Calms in response to a familiar adult's touch.
  • Turns toward a familiar adult's voice.
  • Attends to one moving toy on a mobile, then to another.
  • Grasps one toy, and then lets go of it while reaching for another toy that has been introduced by a familiar adult.
  • Holds an object in each hand, and then touches the two objects together.
  • Communicates, "More," during lunch.
  • Dumps small cars out of a bucket.
  • Gestures for more when playing with play dough.
  • Shows excitement when an adult offers another book.
  • Communicates, "Dos," ["Two," in Spanish] and holds up two cups in the play kitchen.
  • Communicates, "One, two, five, one, two," while pointing randomly to objects in a group.
  • Signs, "Two," in response to the question of "How old are you?"
  • Communicates a desire for two apple slices after noticing that a peer has two apple slices.
  • Communicates, "Three dogs," while looking at a picture of three dogs.
  • Communicates, "Now I have one bear and you have one," while giving a peer a stuffed bear.
  • Counts out loud, "一, 二, 三, 四, 五," ["One, two, three, four, five," in Chinese] saying the next number as the next cup is placed on the table.
  • Chants numbers from one to 10 in order while waiting for a tricycle.
  • Counts, "One, two, three," out loud while pointing to each of three squares on a light box.
  • Counts ducks in a storybook, "One, two, three, four, five," and then communicates that there are five.
  • Communicates that there are six rocks after counting a collection of six rocks.
  • Counts four pencils and says, "Apat," ["Four," in Tagalog] when asked how many pencils there are.
  • Counts six chairs, then counts seven children, and communicates, "We need one more chair."
  • Counts accurately to 20 while marching.
  • Counts on fingers to determine how many napkins to get so that each child at a table of six has one.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 3

Number Sense of Quantity

COG 3

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 8: Cause and Effect

Child demonstrates an increasing ability to observe, anticipate, and reason about the relationship between cause and effect

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds or shows anticipatory excitement to people, objects, or actions

Repeats actions that have effects

Tries out different behaviors to cause effects

Searches for possible causes of actions, events, or behaviors

Acts on objects to cause a specific result

Acts in ways that take into account an anticipated result

Offers possible explanations for why certain actions or behaviors result in specific effects

Shows understanding that variations in actions or degrees of actions with the same objects or materials cause different results

Possible Examples
  • Widens eyes or opens mouth when a bottle or breast is presented.
  • Quiets in response to an adult's voice.
  • Orients to a music toy nearby.
  • Shakes a rattle, pauses, then shakes it again.
  • Kicks repeatedly at a mobile to make it move.
  • Vocalizes, gains a familiar adult's attention, and vocalizes again.
  • Pulls an adult's hand to child's face to continue a game of peek-a-boo.
  • Makes a game of pushing different objects off a table, watching or listening as they fall.
  • Presses different buttons on a toy and notices what happens.
  • Tries to turn a doorknob after watching an adult open and close the door.
  • Looks up in the sky and points when hearing a loud noise from a plane flying overhead.
  • Pushes on different parts of a toy to try to make music turn on again.
  • Pours water into a water wheel to make it spin.
  • Puts a toy car in a tube and watches it roll out the other end when the tube is tilted.
  • Pulls or directs an adult to pull a tab in an interactive book.
  • Puts hands over ears before someone pops a balloon or makes another type of loud noise.
  • Requests a hat before going outside on a bright day.
  • Yells out when observing a toy about to fall from a shelf.
  • Gets rocks to hold paper down during an outdoor art activity on a windy day.
  • Communicates, "The ice melted and made water because it's hot in the sun."
  • Points to wilted leaves on a plant and communicates that the plant needs water.
  • Communicates that the lettuce in the garden is all gone and that maybe a rabbit ate it.
  • Uses communication device to describe how a plant grows from a seed.
  • Communicates, "If I kick the ball harder, it will go really far!" during outdoor play.
  • Enlarges the base of a block tower by replacing small blocks with large blocks after the tower keeps falling over.
  • Communicates to a peer about how to feed the fish: "We have to give it a little bit of food every day. If we give it too much, it will get sick."
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 8

Cause and Effect

COG 8

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 9: Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation

Child observes, explores, and investigates objects (living and nonliving things) and events in the environment and becomes increasingly sophisticated in pursuing knowledge about them

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to people, things, or sounds

Attends to responses of objects and people that result from own actions

Shows interest in people or things in the environment

Engages in simple purposeful explorations of familiar objects in the environment

Engages in sustained explorations

Observes objects and events of interest in the environment, makes simple predictions about them, and checks the predictions

Engages in detailed observations and complex investigations of objects and events in the environment (e.g., tests predictions, makes comparisons, uses scientific tools, or tracks changes over time)

Contributes to planning and carries out detailed observations and complex investigations to answer questions of interest

Possible Examples
  • Notices and gazes at own hand.
  • Orients toward a person who comes into view or begins talking.
  • Looks at a mobile.
  • Makes a sound and then waits for adult's response.
  • Mouths an object and then looks at it.
  • Bangs objects one at a time and then observes what happens each time.
  • Bangs a drum with hands repeatedly.
  • Touches hair of another child.
  • Watches intently as an adult prepares snack.
  • Drops rocks into water and watches what happens.
  • Follows a trail of ants to see where they are going.
  • Stacks blocks to see how high they can go before falling over.
  • Explores how a wind-up toy works that has been placed on the child's lap.
  • Watches a new fish in the tank closely for several minutes, then calls a peer over to watch the fish, too.
  • Digs "road" in sand, pours in water, and then checks to see if water ran to the end.
  • Notices a drooping plant and comments, "How can we make it better?" and tries different ways to support it, such as holding it or leaning it against something.
  • Picks up a snail after observing it for a while. Then asks, "Where did its head go?" when the snail goes into its shell.
  • Indicates that a "rolypoly" bug will roll up into a ball if touched, and then checks by touching it.
  • Communicates that when you add water to flour, that the flour will be sticky, during a small group activity led by an adult.
  • Predicts that paint will turn purple while watching an adult mix together blue and red paint.
  • Predicts that a rock is heavier than a shell, and then uses a balance scale to show that the rock is heavier.
  • Communicates that a tennis ball will go down the ramp faster than a plastic ball, but more slowly than a golf ball, and then rolls the balls several times to see which reaches the bottom first.
  • Participates in making a chart of how much the temperature changed each day, during a small group activity led by an adult.
  • Asks an adult, "How do you know if a fruit is really a fruit?" After adult responds that fruit have seeds, plans with adult to open up several different types of fruits to see if they all have seeds.
  • Participates in making a chart to compare change, over time, in the growth of bean plants, and communicates, "I think this bean plant grew taller because it got more sun next to the window."
  • Participates in setting up a chart to observe how long it will take for a caterpillar to create a cocoon and turn into a butterfly.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 9

Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation

COG 9

 

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Developmental Domain: COG — Cognition, Including Math and Science

COG 11: Knowledge of the Natural World

Child develops the capacity to understand objects (living and nonliving things) and events in the natural world, including how they change and their characteristics

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Attends to people, objects, or events

Interacts with objects or people

Shows interest in the characteristics of living or nonliving things in the environment

Explores how objects in the natural world will behave or function

Identifies basic characteristics of living things, earth materials, or events in the environment (e.g., how they look, feel, sound, or behave)

Demonstrates awareness of basic needs and processes that are unique to living things (e.g., need for water and food; change and growth)

Demonstrates an awareness of differences among living things, earth materials, or events in the environment by identifying some of their specific characteristics (e.g., appearance, behaviors, habitats) /strong>

Demonstrates knowledge of categories of living things, earth materials, or events in the environment, and knowledge of processes unique to living things (e.g., breathing, healing, changes through the life cycle)

Possible Examples
  • Looks at the movement of a mobile.
  • Quiets when an adult moves close.
  • Orients in the direction of a sound, touch, or gesture.
  • Shows pleasure during a playful interaction with adult during feeding.
  • Mouths object.
  • Makes repeated attempts to grab at a family pet's fur.
  • Touches the leaves of a plant.
  • Looks around when hearing a cat "meow."
  • Rubs hands over a smooth rock during outdoor play.
  • Goes to cage where classroom pet is kept.
  • Taps a rock on another rock, then on the pavement.
  • Pours sand through a funnel.
  • Walks through a puddle, stomping feet hard to splash the water.
  • Watches a frog, then moves back when the frog jumps.
  • Touches wet ground and communicates, "Muddy."
  • Communicates that a worm is long and wiggly.
  • Identifies different animal sounds when visiting a zoo or farm.
  • Communicates, "My puppy likes to eat a lot because he's growing and getting bigger."
  • Observes that the water is below the roots in a sweetpotato jar and adds more water.
  • Wants to know who will feed the fish over the weekend.
  • Communicates, "The clouds are moving so fast. They cover the sun and then I can't see it."
  • Communicates that lemons are sour and oranges are sweet, when tasting lemons and oranges.
  • Communicates, “You find worms in the dirt and bees on the flowers.”
  • Feeds a rabbit and then explains, "它要長大需要吃青菜. 所有動物都要吃東西,”," ["It needs lettuce to grow. All animals need food," in Chinese].
  • Comments, while sorting through a collection of rocks and shells, "Animals live in shells, but not in rocks."
  • Communicates, "Fish can breathe underwater, but we have to hold our breath."
  • Communicates that a friend fell down and hurt a knee and that the knee has to be covered until it is all better.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
COG 11

Knowledge of the Natural World

COG 11

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 1: Perceptual-Motor Skills and Movement Concepts

Child moves body and interacts with the environment, demonstrating increasing awareness of own physical effort, body awareness, spatial awareness, and directional awareness

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds to sensory information or input (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile) with basic movements of body parts

Responds to sensory information by moving body or limbs to reach for or move toward people or objects

Uses sensory information to control body while exploring people, objects, or changes in the physical environment

Demonstrates awareness of major body parts by exploring their movement potential

Tries different ways to coordinate movements of large or small body parts

Adjusts, with adult guidance, aspects of movement (e.g., effort, spatial, directional) in relation to people and objects

Anticipates and then adjusts, on own, aspects of movement (e.g., effort, spatial, directional) in relation to people and objects in familiar spaces

Anticipates and then adjusts aspects of movement (e.g., effort, spatial, directional) during new activities, in changed environments, or on different surfaces

Possible Examples
  • Turns head in response to a light being turned on.
  • Quiets in response to an adult singing.
  • Responds to being touched on the cheek.
  • Moves toward a familiar adult while being picked up.
  • Bats or kicks at a hanging mobile.
  • Turns toward, then grasps, a rattle being shaken.
  • Gazes at, then reaches toward, glasses on someone's face.
  • Shifts body to stabilize it, in order to reach up toward an adult's face while sitting on the adult's lap.
  • Repositions body in order to manipulate levers and buttons on a busy box.
  • Dabs fingers in water before placing whole hand in.
  • Pats play dough with whole hand, then leans forward to roll it.
  • Participates in songs or games requiring movement of specific body parts.
  • Moves arm up and down, with increasing momentum, to shake bells louder.
  • Uses arms to push against a container of wooden blocks that does not move, then leans body forward to push harder.
  • Changes movements when dancing with scarves.
  • Starts and stops movements of different body parts during a freeze-dance game.
  • Moves over, under, around, and through large objects in an obstacle course, sometimes bumping them.
  • Avoids bumping into orange cones on a path for wheel toys by moving around them, after an adult points to the cones.
  • Raises knees high when following an adult marching.
  • Moves away from a nearby child after an adult communicates, "Make sure you have enough room to stretch without bumping your neighbor."
  • Changes pathway of movement from straight to curved or zigzag when following another child during a game of follow the leader.
  • Pedals a wheel toy harder to go faster when catching up to another child on a wheel toy.
  • Uses feet to slow self when coming down a ramp.
  • Reaches for a small pitcher of milk without bumping into other objects on the table during lunch.
  • Moves other wheel toys closer together to make room for a new wheel toy when putting it away during outdoor play.
  • Tries several different ways to move through sections of a new obstacle course.
  • Walks carefully after slipping on wet leaves or grass during a nature walk.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 1

Perceptual-Motor Skills and Movement Concepts

PD-HLTH 1

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 2: Gross Locomotor Movement Skills

Child shows increasing proficiency in fundamental locomotor skills (e.g., rolling, crawling, cruising, walking, running, jumping, galloping)

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Moves in basic and often involuntary ways

Moves two or more body parts together, often with intention

Coordinates movements of body parts to move whole body, such as creeping, crawling, or scooting on bottom

Coordinates movement of whole body while upright, using support

Coordinates basic movements in an upright position without using support

Coordinates movements, in an upright position, that momentarily move whole body off the ground

Coordinates and controls individual locomotor movements, with some success

Combines and coordinates two or more locomotor movements together in effective ways, with some success

Combines a variety of locomotor movements and moves effectively across a range of activities

Possible Examples
  • Turns head in response to stimulation or nourishment.
  • Turns head to seek source of stimulation or nourishment.
  • Responds involuntarily to a sudden loud noise or movement by extending arms and legs.
  • Turns head and reaches for a toy.
  • Kicks at a mobile when lying on back.
  • Rolls from stomach to back or from back to stomach.
  • Creeps or crawls toward a familiar adult.
  • Moves from lying down to a sitting position.
  • Moves by rolling body on the floor
  • Moves by using arms to pull self forward.
  • Takes steps sideways or forward while holding onto furniture.
  • Walks forward steadily while pushing a cube chair.
  • Pulls up to a standing position while grasping an adult's hands.
  • Stands up with support of a mobility aid, such as a walker.
  • Walks forward with a wide base (legs farther apart) and arms held high.
  • Stands up from squatting, unassisted, after picking up a toy.
  • Walks with one object in each hand.
  • Moves forward on a flat surface, using a mobility aid, such as a walker.
  • Runs with short, uneven steps with arms to the side.
  • Crouches down and jumps up, with heels barely coming off of the ground.
  • Hops with two feet leaving the ground momentarily.
  • Runs with short strides, and sometimes has difficulty stopping.
  • Moves along a low balance beam or along the side of a curb, stepping sideways.
  • Navigates changes in surface and direction, using a mobility aid, such as a walker.
  • Runs with long strides, showing arm and leg opposition (e.g., right arm and left leg).
  • Crouches down and then jumps forward using both legs.
  • Hops on one foot, holding arms out for balance and sometimes putting a foot down in between hops.
  • Runs fast with long stride and speed, consistently showing arm and leg opposition (e.g., right arm and left leg).
  • Changes direction and stops quickly and easily while running.
  • Swings arms back and then forward in preparation for jumping.
  • Moves wheelchair through an obstacle course, first going straight, then turning quickly, then turning quickly again.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 2

Gross Locomotor Movement Skills

PD-HLTH 2

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 3: Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

Child shows increasing proficiency in gross motor manipulative skills (e.g., reaching, kicking, grasping, throwing, and catching)

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Moves in basic and often involuntary ways

Uses arms, legs, or body to move toward or reach for people or objects

Uses arms, legs, or body to engage in simple, repeated actions on objects

Uses arms, legs, or body in various ways to manipulate objects, while in positions such as sitting, moving on all fours, or upright, using support

Manipulates objects, using one or more body parts, with limited stability

Manipulates objects, using one or more body parts, with stability but limited coordination

Uses two or more movements sequentially to manipulate objects, sometimes pausing briefly between movements

Coordinates arms, legs, or body to manipulate objects, with connected sequential or simultaneous movements

Applies a variety of manipulative skills, in combination with locomotor skills, in different physical activities

Possible Examples
  • Kicks legs.
  • Extends arm.
  • Flexes foot.
  • Kicks against a nearby object.
  • Rolls onto side, toward an object, while lying on a blanket.
  • Reaches toward a familiar adult, using both arms.
  • Bangs a cup on a table.
  • Splashes in water.
  • Kicks table leg while seated for snack.
  • Moves to a ball, pushes it away, then moves toward it and pushes it again.
  • Picks up and drops blocks while holding onto a low table.
  • Sits with legs apart and traps a rolling ball with arms.
  • Moves toward a large container while holding onto a beanbag, and then drops beanbag inside the container.
  • Crawls under table to retrieve a block; then crawls back out while holding the block.
  • Raises arm to throw a beanbag without moving feet, but loses balance.
  • Approaches a stationary ball, stops, and pushes ball with foot, then steadies self.
  • Catches a ball while in a stationary position, using arms to bring it in and hold it against body.
  • Practices throwing a ball by bringing it behind the head, sometimes dropping it but continuing the arm motion.
  • Bends knees and jumps up to move a parachute or bed sheet that is also being held by others, sometimes losing grasp.
  • Swings leg back to kick a stationary ball while standing in place.
  • Hands out carpet squares to peers at circle time, sometimes dropping them.
  • Catches a stuffed animal, with hands, keeping arms extended, and then uses hands to hold onto it.
  • Steps and kicks a stationary ball, showing arm and leg opposition (e.g., left foot forward, right arm back), pausing briefly kicking.
  • Reaches up to take a hat off a hook, pauses to regain balance, and then puts hat on head.
  • Uses hands to catch a beanbag tossed to either side of the body.
  • Strikes a ball off a cone, using a bat, with a horizontal swing and rotation of upper trunk.
  • Runs up to a stationary ball, plants foot next to the ball, and then swings leg for a forceful kick.
  • Runs, with arm and leg opposition (e.g., left foot forward, right arm back), to try to catch a butterfly with a net.
  • Runs and kicks a moving ball forcefully, showing arm and leg opposition (e.g., left food forward, right arm back), maintaining balance.
  • Bounces a ball several times while walking.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 3

Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

PD-HLTH 3

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 4: Fine Motor Manipulative Skills

Child demonstrates increasing precision, strength, coordination, and efficiency when using muscles of the hand for play and functional tasks*

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Moves arms or hands in basic ways

Uses arms or hands to make contact with objects in the environment

Grasps objects with entire hand

Grasps objects with fingers and thumb

Explores ways to use one hand, or to use both hands doing the same movements, to manipulate objects

Manipulates objects with one hand while stabilizing the objects with other hand or with another part of body

Manipulates objects with both hands doing different movements

Manipulates objects, using hands, with strength, accuracy, and coordination

Performs, with efficiency, a variety of tasks that require precise manipulation of small objects

Possible Examples
  • Curls fingers around an adult's finger.
  • Brings fist to mouth.
  • Makes small movements of arms and hands near the sides of body.
  • Holds a stuffed toy against body.
  • Pulls an object closer, using a raking motion.
  • Pushes hands against an adult.
  • Uses fingers and palm to grasp toys of different shapes or sizes.
  • Holds a stacking ring with full fist.
  • Holds a spoon with full fist while being fed by an adult with another spoon.
  • Holds a spoon, using thumb and fingers.
  • Pinches cereal pieces between finger and thumb.
  • Picks up a stacking ring, using fingers and thumb.
  • Lifts a cup to mouth with both hands, but may spill some.
  • Scribbles back and forth on pavement with sidewalk chalk, using one hand.
  • Grasps and turns a doorknob, but may not have strength or coordination to open the door.
  • Holds play dough with one hand while cutting it with a wooden knife.
  • Steadies a container of block accessories on lap while picking out the tree-shaped blocks.
  • Scoops sand into a container with one hand while holding the container with other hand.
  • Uses scissors to cut out simple shapes (e.g., circle, square) on paper.
  • Pushes a cord through a large bead, using one hand, while moving the bead onto the cord with the other hand.
  • Peels a banana or orange after adult starts the peel.
  • Buttons two to three large front buttons on a shirt.
  • Takes a cap off of a marker by twisting with one hand, then pulling with both hands in opposite directions.
  • Starts the peel on a banana or mandarin orange.
  • Unfastens buckle on chest strap of wheelchair.
  • Fastens snaps on pants made of thicker, stiffer materials, such as denim jeans.
  • Makes a necklace by stringing a variety of small beads with narrow holes.
  • Uses a computer mouse to draw details of a picture on a computer screen.
  • Rotates pencil within the hand to use the eraser when scribbling with a pencil.
  • Uses scissors to cut more challenging materials such as fabric or cardstock during an art activity

* Children who do not have use of one or both hands may still be rated as demonstrating mastery at a level if they can accomplish the functional intent of the descriptor using other body parts, or prosthetic devices.

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 4

Fine Motor Manipulative Skills

PD-HLTH 4

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 5: Safety

Child shows awareness of safety and increasingly demonstrates knowledge of safety skills when participating in daily activities*

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Reacts to unpleasant stimulation or events in basic ways

Responds to situations that make child feel unsafe

Seeks to make contact with familiar adult

Follows adults' guidance about basic safety practices

Follows basic safety practices, with close adult supervision

Follows basic safety practices on own in familiar environments, with occasional adult reminders

Applies basic safety practices on own across different situations

Communicates an understanding of some safety practices to others

Possible Examples
  • Startles after hearing a loud noise.
  • Closes eyes in response to a bright light.
  • Cries when touched by a cold washcloth.
  • Turns away from a loud noise.
  • Clings to a familiar adult after the adult's grip loosens while child is being carried.
  • Cries when an unfamiliar adult approaches.
  • Turns away from an unfamiliar adult and moves toward a familiar adult.
  • Looks to a familiar adult before moving down a ramp.
  • Cries and looks for a familiar adult for comfort after falling down.
  • Stops running and walks after a familiar adult communicates, "Use walking feet."
  • Pats the classroom pet gently when a familiar adult communicates, "Gentle touches."
  • Accepts a familiar adult's hand and holds it when requested to before crossing the street.
  • Stops and reaches for an adult's hand when approaching a crosswalk.
  • Tries to buckle own seat belt as an adult buckles other children in a multi-child stroller.
  • Seeks adult assistance to use a step stool in order to obtain an object out of reach.
  • Cleans up spills during a cooking activity.
  • Waits turn to climb ladder on outside play equipment, with an adult reminder.
  • Slows tricycle as a peer approaches.
  • Stays behind the boundaries set up by adults to designate the swing-set area.
  • Follows classroom safety rules when using scissors, such as holding scissors with blade pointed down.
  • Brings helmet for an adult to put on child's head before riding a tricycle on a family walk.
  • Explains, "I wait for the walk sign and hold my mom's hand before I cross the street."
  • Holds out arm to stop a peer from walking through a spill on the floor.
  • Communicates, "Slow down! No running inside!" to a peer.

* Children at the Building Later and Integrating Earlier levels still need adult supervision to carry out safety practices on their own.

□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 5

Safety

PD-HLTH 5

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 6: Personal Care Routines: Hygiene

Child increasingly responds to and initiates personal care routines that support hygiene

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Middle
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds in basic ways during personal care routines that involve hygiene

Responds in ways that demonstrate awareness of a hygiene routine

Anticipates one or two steps of a hygiene routine

Participates in own hygiene routines, with an adult

Carries out some steps of own hygiene routines, with specific adult guidance or demonstration

Carries out most steps of familiar hygiene routines, with occasional reminders of when or how to do them

Initiates and carries out most steps of familiar hygiene routines on own

Initiates and completes familiar hygiene routines on own

Possible Examples
  • Looks at an adult's face, or quiets, during a diaper change.
  • Closes eyes when face is washed.
  • Kicks legs during a diaper change.
  • Attends to an adult's actions during diapering routine.
  • Grabs for the washcloth as an adult washes child's face.
  • Shows excitement during bathtime.
  • Pulls at diaper or pants when diaper needs to be changed.
  • Puts hands under a faucet before an adult starts to turn on the water.
  • Turns head toward or away from a tissue when an adult tries to wipe child's nose.
  • Communicates to an adult the need for help with toileting or for a diaper change.
  • Rubs hands together under a faucet after an adult turns the water on.
  • Tries to blow nose into a tissue held by an adult.
  • Lines up at sink to wash hands before lunch time.
  • Uses toilet (pulls down pants, sits, etc.), but may need an adult's assistance with wiping.
  • Gets a tissue and wipes own nose, with adult guidance to then throw tissue away and wash hands.
  • Gets own toothbrush and gives it to an adult after meals when asked.
  • Uses the toilet on own, and flushes after adult reminder.
  • Washes and partially dries hands, and then dries them completely when suggested to by an adult.
  • Takes toothbrush after an adult puts on toothpaste, begins to brush teeth, but needs to be reminded to brush teeth in the back of the mouth.
  • Uses toilet on own, sometimes forgetting to do one step, such as washing hands.
  • Washes hands before eating and usually remembers to use soap.
  • Gets a toothbrush, runs it under a faucet, holds it for an adult to squeeze toothpaste on, and brushes teeth.
  • Uses toilet on own, completing all steps, including washing hands.
  • Coughs and sneezes into elbow most of the time.
  • Goes to brush teeth after lunch, brushes teeth, and puts away toothbrush on own.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 6

Personal Care Routines: Hygiene

PD-HLTH 6

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 7: Personal Care Routines: Feeding

Child responds to feeding and feeds self with increasing proficiency

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
N/A
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds in basic ways during feeding

Shows interest in participating in the process of being fed

Feeds self some finger food items

Feeds self some foods using a spoon and cup, sometimes needing help

Feeds self a wide variety of foods using a spoon, fork, and an open cup

Serves self or others by scooping or pouring from containers

Prepares simple foods to serve to self or others

Possible Examples
  • Turns toward an adult's touch during feeding.
  • Sucks on the nipple of a bottle or breast.
  • Gazes at or nuzzles up to an adult when feeding.
  • Closes lips around food on a spoon.
  • Puts one or both hands on a bottle or breast while being held during feeding.
  • Reaches for a spoon while being fed.
  • Shows excitement as an adult approaches with a bottle or bowl.
  • Feeds self small pieces of food, such as cereal or cheese, with fingers or whole hand.
  • Holds and bites a banana.
  • Picks up and eats crackers from a tray.
  • Eats soft food, such as yogurt or applesauce, from a bowl, using a spoon, with adult sometimes assisting with scooping.
  • Drinks from a cup while an adult guides the cup.
  • Uses a spoon to eat dry cereal from a bowl, sometimes dropping cereal pieces.
  • Uses a child-sized fork to pierce food.
  • Drinks water from a small open cup.
  • Uses adaptive utensils to feed self a meal when positioned functionally.
  • Serves self from a serving bowl, using a large spoon, while someone else holds the bowl.
  • Pours from a small pitcher, with some spilling.
  • Uses a scoop to fill small bowls with cereal for snack time.
  • Spreads jelly on bread with a small spatula to make a sandwich.
  • Cuts foods with a small plastic knife.
  • Takes the shell off of a hardboiled egg.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 7

Personal Care Routines: Feeding

PD-HLTH 7

 

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Developmental Domain: PD–HLTH — Physical Development–Health

PD-HLTH 8: Personal Care Routines: Dressing

Child develops and refines ability to participate in and take responsibility for dressing self

Mark the latest developmental level the child has mastered:
Responding Exploring Building Integrating
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
Earlier
Later
N/A
Earlier
N/A

Responds in basic ways during dressing

Responds in ways that demonstrate awareness of a dressing routine

Anticipates one or two steps of a dressing routine

Participates with adult in dressing self

Puts on clothing that is simple to manipulate, sometimes with adult assistance

Dresses self, but still needs assistance with parts of clothing that are particularly challenging (e.g., buttons, fasteners, zippers)

Dresses self, including clothing with parts that are particularly challenging (e.g., buttons, fasteners, zippers)

Possible Examples
  • Cries or fusses when diaper is changed.
  • Looks at adult while being dressed.
  • Blinks eyes as clothing is placed over head.
  • Shifts body as an adult puts a clean diaper on child.
  • Squirms to avoid having shirt being pulled over the head while being dressed.
  • Allows an adult to move child's arms while removing child's jacket.
  • Extends arms out when an adult approaches with a jacket.
  • Leans toward an adult while a shirt is being put on child.
  • Sits down and extends feet for an adult to put shoes on child.
  • Pushes arms through the sleeves of a shirt held by an adult.
  • Lifts smock for an adult to pull it over child’s head.
  • Slips foot into shoe while an adult holds it open.
  • Lifts one leg, then the other, while an adult guides child's legs into pants.
  • Puts legs through pant legs with adult assistance, and then pulls up pants on own.
  • Puts on own jacket as an adult holds it open or lays it out.
  • Puts feet into shoes on own.
  • Pulls on loose-fitting socks on own.
  • Zips own jacket up, but needs adult assistance with starting the zipper.
  • Puts on own socks and shoes, but needs shoes tied or tabs fastened.
  • Changes into T-shirt and sweatpants on own after water play.
  • Puts on own shoes and fastens tabs.
  • Buttons own jacket.
  • Zips and snaps own pants.
□ Child is emerging to the next developmental level
□ Unable to rate this measure due to extended absence
PD-HLTH 8

Personal Care Routines: Dressing

PD-HLTH 8

 

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Glossary of Terms and Phrases Used in the DRDP (2015)

Assemblage: An artistic composition made from scraps, junk, or odds and ends.
(California Department of Education. [2011]. California Preschool Curriculum Framework, Vol. 2, p. 286. Sacramento, CA: Author.)
Appears in VPA 1: Visual Art

Investigates/Investigation: In the process of scientific inquiry, asking a question and conducting systematic observations or simple experiments to find an answer.
(California Department of Education. [2008]. Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 3, p. 95. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in:
COG 9: Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation
COG 10: Documentation and Communication of Inquiry

Locomotor Skills: The ability to project the body into or through space.
(California Department of Education. [2010]. California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 2, p. 62. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in:
PD-HLTH 2: Gross Locomotor Movement Skills
PD-HLTH 3: Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

Manipulative Skills: Also known as object-control skills in which the arms, hands, legs, and feet are used to give force to an object (for example, throwing a ball) or to receive and absorb the force from an object (for example, catching a ball).
(California Department of Education. [2010]. California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 2, p. 62. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in PD-HLTH 3: Gross Motor Manipulative Skills

Observes / Observation: Gathering information about objects and events by using the senses of sight, smell, sound, touch, and taste and noticing specific details or phenomena that ordinarily might be overlooked.
(California Department of Education. [2008]. Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 3, p. 95. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in:
COG 9: Inquiry Through Observation and Investigation
COG 10: Documentation and Communication of Inquiry

Onset: The first consonant or consonant cluster in a syllable (e.g., the h in the one-syllable word hat; the m and k in the two syllables in the word monkey.
(California Department of Education. [2008]. Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 1, p. 89. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in LLD 8: Phonological Awareness

Rime: A linguistic term that refers to the portion of a syllable that starts with a vowel. In the word big, the rime unit is /ig/. In the word bring, the rime unit is /ing/.
(California Department of Education [2008]. Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 1, p. 89. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press.)
Appears in LLD 8: Phonological Awareness

 

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Appendix

The following resources provide additional information for use of the DRDP (2015)

 

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Appendix A:
Requirements of the DRDP (2015) Assessment

The DRDP (2015) will be administered in both the California Department of Education’s Early Education and Support Division (EESD) programs and in Special Education Division (SED) early intervention and preschool programs. This table provides information about which children are assessed; and when, how, and where to submit the results of the DRDP (2015).

For more information:

 

Early Education and Support Division (EESD) Programs
Special Education Division (SED) Programs

Preschool Views as of July 1, 2016

  • The Preschool View has two forms:
    • The Comprehensive View, containing all of the domains related to the Preschool Learning Foundations.
    • The Fundamental View, containing only the domains essential to school readiness.
  • Program administrators will determine which Preschool View will be utilized.
  • Programs should use the same Preschool View for at least one school year in order to measure progress.
  • The Fundamental View will be submitted to CASEMIS. The Comprehensive View is available for special educators as an instructional resource.

Which children are assessed

  • All infants, toddlers and preschool age children receiving care in direct service programs, and other programs choosing to use a developmental assessment.
  • If a child receives services for less than ten hours per week, a DRDP assessment is not required.
  • All infants and toddlers with Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) who are reported in the CASEMIS system.
  • All preschool-age children (3 - 5 year olds not enrolled in transitional kindergarten or kindergarten) who have Individualized Education Programs (IEPs).
  • To be included in the fall assessment, children must begin services before October 1.
  • To be included in the spring assessment, children must begin services before March 1.

When children are assessed

Child assessments are completed within the first 60 days of enrollment and then at six month intervals thereafter.
  • Children are assessed twice a year, fall and spring. Plan to submit data by December 1 for the fall and June 1 for the spring assessment.
  • Assessment should be conducted at six month intervals.
  • Check with local administrators as to how, when, and to whom DRDP data will be submitted.

How children are assessed

All children are assessed with the DRDP (2015).

  • Children birth to three years of age are assessed with the Infant/toddler View
  • Children three to five years of age are assessed with the Preschool View

Where to submit DRDP data

Assessment data is input to DRDPtech for secure data storage and to obtain psychometrically valid reports.

Submit data files to CDE/SED in one of two ways:

  • Into the SELPA’s MIS that will upload to CASEMIS
  • Into the DRAccessReports secure data system to prepare data for SELPA upload to CASEMIS

How to obtain reports of results

Psychometrically valid reports are available upon entry of assessment data into DRDPtech.
  • Psychometrically valid reports are available upon entry of assessment data from www.draccessreports.org
  • Coordination with local Management Information Systems is available. Contact reports@draccess.org, for assistance.

 

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Appendix B:
Resources for Assessing Children who are Dual Language Learners with the DRDP (2015)

The DRDP (2015) takes into consideration the specific cultural and linguistic characteristics of California’s diverse population of young children, with specific consideration for children who are young dual language learners. The introduction in the DRDP (2015) Assessment Manual provides information on completing the assessment with young children who are dual language learners. Keep in mind that young dual language learners may demonstrate knowledge and skills in their home language, in English, or in both languages. Communication in all languages the child uses should be considered when collecting documentation and completing the measures in all domains of the DRDP (2015).

The following resources will increase your knowledge and help you better complete the DRDP (2015) for young children who are dual language learners.

From the California Department of Education
California’s Best Practices for Young Dual Language Learners: Research Overview Papers

Two papers in this series are particularly relevant:

“Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners in Preschool” focuses on the need for accurate and valid assessment of young dual language learners. It includes a decision tree for practitioners to determine in which language to assess young DLLs, a matrix of language and literacy assessment for use with preschool-age children, and a sample family interview protocol to learn about families’ language practices.

“Early Intervention and Young Dual Language Learners with Special Needs” addresses the language development of young dual language learners with special needs and key considerations when choosing the language for intervention.

www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/ce/
documents/dllresearchpapers.pdf

California Department of Education web pages:
  • Understanding Dual Language Development
  • Assessing Young Dual Language Learners
  • English Language Development (ELD) Foundations
  • Supporting Dual Language Learners

desiredresults.us/dll/index.html

Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning; A Resource Guide, Second Edition. This document, often known as the PEL Guide, provides research related to dual language learning and practices to support children’s learning and development. It is available in Spanish and English, and also has an accompanying DVD titled “A World Full of Language.”

www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/documents/
psenglearnersed2.pdf
<

Assessing Children with Disabilities who are Dual Language Learners This document provides guidance in assessing children with disabilities from linguistically diverse backgrounds with the DRDP (2015) including information on second language acquisition in young children, suggestions for communicating with children who are English Learners, and information about cultural influences on learning.

draccess.org/DLLGuidance.html

From the Office of Head Start National Center on Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness

Gathering and Using Language

Information that Families Share

One-third of the children in Early Head Start and Head Start are Dual Language Learners (DLLs). Recent research provides insights into dual language development and key ways to support children’s progress.

eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/
cultural-linguistic/fcp/docs/dll_background_info.pdf

Code Switching: Why It Matters and How to Respond: Workbook for Early Head Start/Head Start Programs This easy to use workbook defines and describes code switching. It identifies which children code switch and explains why code switching matters. It also includes numerous examples of how adults can provide strong language models for children when they code switch.

eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/
cultural-linguistic/code-switching.html

From the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
Screening and Assessment of Young English-Language Learners Supplement to the NAEYC and NAECS/SDE Joint Position Statement on Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation

www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/
ELL_Supplement_Shorter_Version.pdf

From the Center for Early Care and Education Research – Dual Language Learners (CECER-DLL)
Development of Infants and Toddlers Who Are Dual Language Learners This paper reviews empirical research about the development of infants and toddlers who are dual language learners (DLLs) looking at formation of attachment relationships; development of motor skills; the foundation for executive functioning skills to regulate behaviors; huge advances in detection, comprehension, and production of language; and many more developmental accomplishments.

fpg.unc.edu/resources/working-paper-2-development-lnfants-and-toddlers-who-are-dual-language-learners

From the Council for Exceptional Children/Division for Early Childhood (DEC)
YEC Monograph 14: Supporting Young Children who are Dual Language Learners with or at-risk for Disabilities Considers contemporary perspectives about strategies to support young children who are dual language learners served in inclusive early childhood settings. Information included in this monograph will be immediately useful for practitioners and families and will demonstrate the value of thoughtfully and systematically approaching assessment, interventions, and services for the benefit of children who are dual language learners and their families.

www.dec-sped.org/dll

From the Educational Testing Service (ETS)
Enhancing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners’ Achievement: Exploring Strategies and Addressing Challenges This education policy report explores issues related to improving instruction in programs serving preschool-aged children focusing on young Hispanic dual language learners. Assessment is addressed in the section titled: Improving Teachers’ Practice through the Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners

onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
enhanced/doi/10.1002/ets2.12045/

 

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Appendix C:
Strategies for Observation and Documentation

The DRDP (2015) is administered through observation in natural settings by teachers and other service providers in the classroom or center and by family members in home and community settings. Observations are embedded into typical, ongoing routines and activities throughout the day. The process of observation requires planning in advance on the part of teachers and service providers. As you review the measures of the DRDP (2015), consider specific routines or activities during the day where you would be able to observe more than one measure or more than one child.

Strategies for Effective Observation

Observation should be ongoing throughout the year. The assessment windows for the DRDP (2015) provide a period of time to make sure teachers and service providers have sufficient documentation for each of the measures in time to submit DRDP data. To rate a child’s behavior, teachers and service providers should use naturalistic, or authentic, observation strategies. Below are several key points to support naturalistic observations. You will find additional information about naturalistic assessment by viewing the short video, What is Authentic Assessment at draccess.org/guidancefordrdp. Many observation and documentation job aids can be found at desiredresults.us/content/teachers. You will also find a training DVD, Getting to know You Through Observation, at desiredresults.us/content/observation-resources that can be used by EESD and other administrators to train staff.

Strategies for Effective Documentation

A variety of methods are available for recording information gathered through naturalistic observations, including:

  • Anecdotal Records – An anecdotal record is a written note about what a child does or says during a typical or routine activity. Anecdotal records result in brief descriptions of the behavior observed.
  • Event recording (tallies) – In event recording, the observer records each instance of the behavior being observed so that an indication of frequency is obtained. Usually this is done with tally marks but may also be recorded using a code such as “+” for correct and “-” for incorrect.
  • Checklists – Checklists are lists of specific skills or behaviors that can be used during observation to check off the behaviors observed with a group of children.
  • Rating Scales or Rubrics – Rating scales and rubrics are similar to checklists in that they include lists of behaviors but they also include additional descriptive information about the behavior such as how well, how frequently or how independently the behavior occurred.
  • Work Samples – Documentation can also include the collection of 2- or 3- dimensional products that children have produced such as drawings, writing on paper or 3-dimensional constructions the child has made for example with play dough or other materials.
  • Videos or Photographs – Cameras can be used to document observed behaviors of children through videos or still photographs.

Information on strategies for implementing the above documentation strategies can be found at: eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/practice/iss-library.html

Consider the following for planning and collecting documentation:

  • Choose methods of documentation that can be embedded into a program’s environment, structure, and routines.
  • Plan ahead for materials needed for documentation such as sticky notes or pre-printed labels with children’s names for anecdotal records or clipboards with checklists or rubrics. Materials should be strategically located through out the classroom.
  • Observe children’s behaviors throughout the day and record documentation while observing.
  • Date each piece of evidence for future reference.
  • Collect documentation over time. Documentation over time strengthens the validity of ratings.
  • Organize the documentation collected immediately after collecting it.
  • Keep assessment information confidential. Store the DRDP materials, including notes, in a secure location to ensure confidentiality for each child.
10 Strategies for Naturalistic Observation

Know the instrument – Be familiar with the instrument, including the domains and measures being observed.

Observe naturally – Observe the child in the context of typical routines and activities, interacting with familiar people, in familiar places, and with familiar materials.

Observe objectively – Focus on what the child does. Be as objective and detailed as possible. Avoid using labels, qualitative descriptors, or stereotypic expectations that may bias your observations.

Observe strategically – Observe for skills that correspond to the DRDP measures and record your observations. You may be able to gather information on more than one measure during one observation.

Observe daily or routinely – When observations are part of the daily routines, children become accustomed to being observed and seeing notes being recorded.

Observe variety and consistency – Be aware of a child’s overall performance, even when focusing on a single aspect of behavior. Observe the child over time and during different routines and activities.

Be specific and complete – Intentionally and purposefully record the specific details of what you actually observe as soon as possible. Details are important and might be easily forgotten.

Plan ahead – Plan for observations as part of weekly lesson planning. Plan to observe during activities that do not require your full assistance or plan for someone else to observe and document.

Allow time – Allow adequate time for the child to complete any task that he or she is engaged in even if it requires more time than one might expect.

Use appropriate adaptations – Ensure that appropriate adaptations as determined by the IFSP or IEP team are in place when observing the child.

Organizing Documentation

Portfolios: Portfolios are a helpful way of organizing information. EESD programs are required to use a form of portfolio to organize documentation. Portfolios may contain anecdotal notes, children’s work samples, photos of children’s activities, audio or video recordings, and transcripts of the child’s language. The portfolio methods selected should work well for the program.

Electronic Portfolios: If notes are entered into a computer, an electronic portfolio can be produced to summarize the evidence. Please check with a local administrator for procedures regarding consent for photography and video.

Collaboration to Support Effective Documentation

A central goal for teachers and service providers who use the DRDP (2015) is to obtain measures of the child’s developmental progress based on typical day-to-day behaviors. It is difficult to imagine one individual having access to all of the many learning opportunities that a child encounters throughout each day. Therefore, it is very helpful to seek input from individuals who have ongoing contact and who know the child well in order to obtain the most complete and accurate picture of the child’s skills and abilities. It is important to consider how and when collaborating with others will support and help to inform the accurate rating of measures for the DRDP (2015).

Although direct observation of a child is the primary method used to inform ratings, other sources of evidence should be used to supplement observations. Gathering information from others who know the child well such as family members, caregivers, or other service providers often provides a wealth of additional information about a child’s skills, knowledge, and behaviors. This also provides the additional benefit of observations across different settings. There are numerous ways that others can collaborate in sharing information such as written observations, conversations that focus on a child’s development, or viewing short videos or recordings that illustrate a child’s behavior in typical routines and activities.

Planning ahead can make the process of collaboration more helpful. Identify early on in your relationship with the child’s family, who else might provide helpful information to assist in documenting their child’s development. Make sure that the family is well informed about the purpose of the DRDP (2015) and the important role that they can play in sharing their observations about their child. With the family’s permission, communicate with other individuals who know the child and strategize with them how they might be able to share information with you.

Communication is key to successful collaboration. For a more detailed look at collaboration and the assessment process please refer to Appendix F.

 

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Appendix D:
Comprehensive Definitions of Adaptations to be Used with the DRDP (2015)

Adaptations are changes in the environment or differences in observed behavior that allow children with Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) or Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in their typical environments. Adaptations that are in place for the child during the normal course of the day should also be in place during observations for the DRDP (2015). New adaptations should not be introduced solely for the purpose of conducting an assessment. Seven broad categories of adaptations are used with the DRDP (2015). This is the same system of adaptations developed for and used in the DRDP access.

1. Augmentative or Alternative Communication Systems

Augmentative and alternative communication systems are methods of communication other than speech that allow a child who is unable to use spoken language to communicate with others. An augmentative communication system is used to augment or facilitate the development of speech. An alternative communication system is used in place of speech. Some examples include sign language, picture cards, and electronic communication devices. Assessors should use these systems as part of the observation of a child using language in a natural context. Assessors should not just elicit responses or contrive adult-directed situations.

If American Sign Language is the child’s primary language, it is designated as the home language, and not an adaptation. If sign language is used as a bridge to learning verbal language, then it is considered an adaptation.

2. Alternative Modes for Written Language

Alternative Modes for Written language are methods of producing written language used by a child who cannot see well enough or cannot hold and manipulate a writing utensil well enough to produce written symbols. If a child cannot see or cannot hold a pencil or marker, this adaptation may be used to assist in reading or writing, or emergent reading or writing. Examples of this adaptation include using a Braillewriter, keyboard, or computer.

Naturally, preschool-age children are not proficient at reading and writing. This adaptation allows for children to explore reading and writing and develop their skills in a developmentally appropriate manner.

3. Visual Support

Visual supports are adjustments to the environment that facilitate a child’s ability to see or to understand the surrounding environment or events. Acceptable visual supports include:

  • Adjustments in contrast
  • Adjustments in lighting
  • Distance from objects
  • Increased size of materials
  • Verbal description of events

4. Assistive Equipment or Devices

Assistive equipment or devices are tools that make it possible or easier for a child to perform a task. The child should be familiar with the use of the device. Any type of adaptive equipment or assistive device that the child needs for mobility, positioning or manipulating objects is acceptable, including:

  • Walkers
  • Standers

5. Functional Positioning

Functional positioning enables postural support that allows a child to have increased control of his body. It is important that positioning devices are available to the child across settings so that the child may access daily routines and activities and so they may be observed in a variety of activities. Some examples include:

  • Standers
  • Cube chairs
  • Tricycles with seat belts and built-up pedals

6. Sensory Support

Sensory support includes either increasing or decreasing sensory input to facilitate a child’s attention and interactions in the environment. Some children may need increased sensory input and others may need decreased input. Some children require different types of sensory support in different activities. Sensory support may include:

  • Reducing background noise
  • Adjusting tactile stimulation
  • Adjusting visual stimulation

7. Alternative Response Mode

Using alternative response modes means recognizing that a child might demonstrate mastery of a skill in a way that differs from a typically developing child. For this adaptation, the environment is not modified as in the other adaptations. Rather, the child’s unique yet consistent responses that may indicate the presence of a skill are identified. For example, the child with autism may look out of the corner of his or her eye instead of establishing direct eye contact, or the child with a physical impairment may use atypical movement patterns. The form of a child’s response may differ from that of his peers and still be considered to demonstrate mastery of a skill.

 

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Appendix E:
Resources for Working in Partnership with Families

A central goal of the DRDP is to identify a child’s developmental progress based on typical, day-to-day behaviors. It is appropriate to seek input from individuals who have ongoing contact with the child and know the child well. Family members’ descriptions of their child’s behavior in the home or in community settings will help teachers and service providers know more about the child’s behaviors across settings, particularly for those skills the child may not demonstrate routinely in the educational setting; and help teachers and service providers obtain more comprehensive information in order to make accurate ratings for the DRDP (2015).

Family members may participate in the DRDP assessment in a number of ways:

  • Inform the child’s teachers and service providers of the child’s history for a more complete picture of the child.
  • Share the skills they see their child using in typical activities, and might share these skills via stories, photos, drawings, observations, and/or video clips.
  • Share the child’s strengths, areas they wish to focus on, and areas of growth they observe.
  • Become informed about the next steps in their child’s development.
  • Help determine which adaptations will help their child participate in everyday activities (for children with an Individualized Family Service Plans IFSPs) or Individualized Education Program (IEPs) and share with the team adaptations the child uses at home, at school, and in other settings.

Below are resources to assist families in knowing more about the DRDP (2015) and the skills assessed as well as resources to assist teachers and service providers in working as partners with families in the assessment process.

Resources for Families

Overview of the DRDP (2015) for Families: draccess.org/OverviewOfDRDPaccessForFamilies.html
A document describing how the DRDP (2015) works for children, including those with IFSPs and IEPs; and how it benefits families, children, providers, and programs.

All About Young Children: allaboutyoungchildren.org/
A website for families describing skills that help children learn including how they learn language, how they learn about feelings and relationships, how they learn about numbers, and how they become skillful at moving their bodies. (Available in eight different languages.)

California MAP to inclusion and Belonging: cainclusion.org/camap/counties.html
The MAP Project website supports the inclusion of children with disabilities and other special needs ages birth to 21 in child care, after school and community settings. It includes links to resources on topics related to families and children with IFSPs and IEPs. The website contains a statewide interactive directory by county, of Family Resource Centers (FRC), Special Education Local Plan Areas (SELPA), Regional Centers, Head Start, and more for families of children with IFSPs and IEPs.

Desired Results for Children and Families, Information for Families brochure: desiredresults.us/content/families
A brochure describing the Desired Results System for families.

Watching My Child Grow: desiredresults.us/content/families
A DVD that describes the Desired Results Assessment System and its benefits for all children and families from the voices of parents. Call 1-800-770-6339 or visit the website.

Resources for Teachers and Service Providers

Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment: eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/family/docs/family-engagement-and-ongoing-child-assessment-081111-1.pdf
A document that addresses the perspectives of parents and program staff in the sharing of child assessment information through the formation of partnerships and suggests strategies for bringing those perspectives together.

The Role of Family Observations: draccess.org/RoleOfFamilyObsv.html
A document describing the research findings that suggest parents’ observations are reliable and valid and should be considered an essential component of a comprehensive assessment process.

Supporting Children and Families Living in Homeless Situations

CDE Homeless Education website: www.cde.ca.gov/sp/hs/
The McKinney-Vento Act defines homelessness as individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence. This definition also includes individuals who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; who may be living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, shelters, public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; or who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings.

Homeless children and youths have the right to access the same free, appropriate public education, including public preschools, as provided to other children. The website above addresses these rights, and provides educational information and resources for families and educators.

Supporting Children in Foster Care

CDE Foster Youth Services website: www.cde.ca.gov/ls/pf/fy/
Children in foster care face significant barriers to positive educational experiences and academic achievement. A large percentage of children placed in foster care experience physical and emotional trauma as a result of abuse, neglect, separation from family, and impermanence. Although youth are placed in foster care for their safety, foster youth often do not find the security and stability they need through the foster care system. Most children who enter foster care have been exposed to many conditions that have undermined their chances for healthy development and learning.

On average, children who enter the foster care system have experienced more than 14 different environmental, social, biological, and psychological risk factors before coming into care, all impacting learning. These factors often include abuse and neglect, exposure to illicit drugs, and poverty. Once in foster care, they often experience other challenges to their well-being. They may be separated from their brothers and sisters, moved from one foster care placement to another, experience frequent changes in home placements or school placement, or caseworkers who may lack the resources to effectively advocate and plan for their best interests.

The California State Legislature recognizes that a high percentage of foster youth are working substantially below grade level, are being retained at least one year at the same grade level, and are becoming school dropouts. In response, the legislature declared that the instruction, counseling, tutoring, and provision of related services for foster youth be a state priority and mandated the Foster Youth Services Coordinating FYSC) Programs through California Education Code sections 42920–42925. The Program provides services to all foster children and youth attending schools in each county.

The website addresses foster children’s rights, and provides educational information and resources.

For more information

 

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Appendix F:
Collaboration to Complete the DRDP (2015)

“The most valuable resource that teachers have is each other. Without collaboration our growth is limited to our own perspectives.” – Robert John Meehan

Collaborating with Others Who Know the Child Well

Our understanding of young children is strengthened when we commit to partnerships with individuals, including family members, who know the child well and in different settings. Collaboration in gathering and sharing information is important because it affords us windows into a child’s life and offers perspectives that enhance our understanding of a child’s skills and behaviors. Identifying and communicating with the individuals who can collaborate on rating the measures of the DRDP (2015) is an essential step in this process.

Through collaboration, early educators and special educators each bring their skills and perspectives. Early educators contribute by providing a picture of the child in the context of a classroom setting. Special education providers contribute by identifying perspectives on a child’s unique learning needs and specific understanding of a child’s disability including materials that should be available and adaptations that should be in place. This lays the foundation for teachers and service providers to complement one another’s work in assessing a child’s skills and development. Shared information can build relationships that lead to joint decision-making not only about the assessment process but also about curriculum, instruction, supports, and services that teachers, providers and families make for individual children and groups of children.

Collaboration to share assessment observations and evidence for completing the DRDP (2015) is built on relationships and a commitment to ongoing communication. It is developed over time with an understanding of each person’s role. Aim for multiple, informal strategies that can be used on a daily basis. Identifying mutual interests in supporting the child is important. Some questions that address joint interests include:

  • What are the child’s goals?
  • What specialized equipment or adaptations are used?
  • How will the goals be infused into the child’s day and into learning activities?
  • How will we know our strategies are working?

Collaborating with others in the assessment process is especially important in situations where the child is served by multiple providers. For example, a child may attend an early education program and also receive special education services, such as speech-language, occupational, and/or physical therapy. Early education teachers and special education providers can work hand-in-hand to complete the observations and DRDP (2015) ratings for children who are dually enrolled in both programs. How this collaboration will take place – who will be involved and what roles each individual will play – will vary depending on the situation. Teachers and service providers have reported the following helpful strategies:

  • sharing information, including observations, adaptations, curriculum and program goals, and IFSP outcomes or IEP goals
  • providing anecdotal notes
  • sharing work samples and portfolios
  • reviewing reports of DRDP (2015) results together

Increasingly, teachers and providers are utilizing technology such as short video clips or recordings, with family permission, to share information and observations. The DRDP (2015) app helps teachers collaborate, as well as using technology such as email, phone conferences and free web conferencing platforms. Local policies on using devices should be followed.

The early education teacher and special education service provider responsible for completing the DRDP (2015) should each take the lead in partnering with others who work with the child. The general educator is responsible for entering DRDP data into DRDPtech. The special educator is responsible for reporting and entering the assessment data on children who have IEPs or IFSPs to the SELPA. However, except for data reporting, the assessment can be completed together by both educators, and a copy of the Rating Record held by each of them for their respective reporting. Suggestions to help get started working together include:

  • Make an initial plan detailing areas to be observed directly and those areas in which others may have a more thorough knowledge of the child. The general education teacher can provide information on all domains. A speech-language therapist might inform measures in the Language and Literacy Domain. Families and special education providers including physical and occupational therapists are a good source of information for measures in the Physical Development and Health Domain.
  • Contact the individuals who will collaborate to discuss the mutual goal of completing the assessment and to develop a plan for working together.
  • Develop a timeline that is acceptable to all partners, including identifying deadlines and strategies to meet timelines.
  • Collect any signature requirements for sharing child information from the family.
  • Gather multiple perspectives and consider input from family and others who know the child during assessment.
  • Determine when and how communicating about updates and results will occur.

Collaborating with Families

Gathering family perspectives about their child’s development and behavior provides important and valid data, which is useful for making informed assessment decisions. Research suggests that family observations are reliable and valid and should be considered an essential component of a comprehensive assessment process. Inviting parents and other family members to share observations of their child’s development and behavior is required for EESD programs and is good practice in all early childhood settings and programs.

When families collaborate with teachers and service providers in sharing their observations about their child’s behaviors in the home or in community settings, it provides a richer and broader view of a child. Information from families helps to identify skills and behaviors that the child may not demonstrate routinely in the educational setting. For example, a teacher or therapist may not regularly observe a child’s dressing or other self-help skills. However, families have repeated opportunities to observe their child’s self-help skills both over time and in different settings. Parent observations support more accurate reporting about a child’s skills.

Strategies for gathering information from families include the following:

  • Make sure that families understand the skills and behaviors described in the DRDP (2015) measures. Teachers and service providers understand expected sequences of child development and are trained about how items on the DRDP (2015) reflect these sequences. Parents might not understand fully the meaning of measures without explanations or examples. It may be useful to provide families with examples of the kinds of behaviors to look for or the routines and activities that might provide a context for a behavior. For example, rather than ask a parent to describe a child’s grasping pattern, inquire about how a child picks up small pieces of cereal during mealtime.
  • It is reasonable for the observations of parents and practitioners to differ across the range of behaviors being rated. A child’s behavior during activities and routines that occur in the classroom setting may differ from the same child’s behavior in activities and routines in home or community settings. Not all perspectives about children’s behavior based on parent or practitioner observations will be congruent. Rather, aim for convergence or the pooling of perspectives from all who know the child and have had repeated opportunities to observe behavior in different settings.

The ongoing conversations that we have with family members during our typical interactions with them are rich opportunities for learning about their child. Leading a focused conversation with a family is particularly important to obtain information on measures that you have not had the opportunity to observe. During these conversations, focusing on routines and activities provides a very useful context for asking a family about their child’s everyday learning opportunities and skills. The four steps in the resource listed below will guide you in planning and leading focused conversations with families to help complete the DRDP (2015). If this is the first DRDP (2015) assessment that you will be completing with a particular child, be sure that you have spent enough time getting to know the child by observing the child’s skills during typical routines/activities and by having conversations with the family.

For more information

DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education 2014

Developed to provide guidance to practitioners and families about the most effective ways to improve the learning outcomes and promote the development of young children, birth through age 5, who have or are at-risk for developmental delays or disabilities. The purpose is to help bridge the gap between research and practice by highlighting those practices that have been shown to result in better outcomes for you.
www.dec-sped.org/recommendedpractices

Inclusive Planning Checklist: Home-Visiting Programs

Provides suggestions for activities that should take place to ensure that high-quality integrated services are provided. From the Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center, Office of Head Start.
eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/docs/inclusive-plannng-checklist-home-visit.pdf

Leading Conversations with Families to Inform the DRDP (2015): Focusing on Families and Children’s Everyday Routines and Activities

A four-step process that guides early interventionists in holding focused conversations with families in order to gather information for the DRDP (2015).
draccess.org/LeadingFocusedConversations.html

The Role of Family Observations in the Desired Results Assessment System

An overview of the research findings that suggest parents’ observations are reliable and valid and should be considered an essential component of a comprehensive assessment process.
draccess.org/RoleOfFamilyObsv.html

Desired Results Training and Technical Assistance Project

Website: www.desiredresults.us
Email: desiredresults@desiredresults.wested.org
Phone: (800) 770-6339

Desired Results Access Project

Website: www.draccess.org
Email: info@draccess.org
Phone: (800) 673-9220

 

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